The role of louse-transmitted diseases in historical plague pandemics.

  title={The role of louse-transmitted diseases in historical plague pandemics.},
  author={R{\'e}mi Barbieri and Michel Drancourt and Didier Raoult},
  journal={The Lancet. Infectious diseases},
Plague Prevention and Therapy: Perspectives on Current and Future Strategies
Research advances in the areas of vaccines and therapeutics for plague in context of Y. pestis virulence factors and disease pathogenesis are reviewed and research that is important for infection mitigation and disease treatment is highlighted.
Assessing the origins of the European Plagues following the Black Death: a synthesis of genomic, historical and ecological information
It is concluded that the bacterium most likely came to Europe from Asia several times during the Second Plague Pandemic, which can explain the convergent evolutionary signals, including pla-decay, that appeared at the end of the pandemics.
Phylogenetic relationship between the endosymbiont “Candidatus Riesia pediculicola” and its human louse host
The results unequivocally indicate that louse endosymbionts have experienced a similar co-evolutionary history and that the human louse clade can be determined by their endOSymbiotic bacteria.
An outbreak of relapsing fever unmasked by microbial paleoserology, 16th century, France.
Paleoserology unmasked an outbreak of relapsing B. recurrentis fever in one 16th - 17th century military garrison, missed by real-time PCR.
Phylogenetic Relationship Between the Endosymbiont “candidatus Riesia Pediculicola” and Its Human Lice Host
The results unequivocally indicate that lice endosymbiont have experienced a similar co-evolutionary history, and that the human louse clade can be determined by their endosYmbiotic bacteria.
Lives Versus Livelihoods in the Middle Ages: The Impact of the Plague on Markets over 400 Years
To what extent did outbreaks of bubonic plague disrupt daily economic activity? We estimate the impact of epidemics on regional markets over four centuries – from the Black Death in the 14th century,
Differential word expression analyses highlight plague dynamics during the second pandemic
Research on the second plague pandemic that swept over Europe from the fourteenth to nineteenth centuries mainly relies on the exegesis of contemporary texts and is prone to interpretive bias. By


Human ectoparasites and the spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic
It is shown that human ectoparasites, like body lice and human fleas, might be more likely than rats to have caused the rapidly developing epidemics in pre-Industrial Europe, challenging the assumption that plague in Europe was predominantly spread by rats.
Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas as a mechanism explaining rapidly spreading plague epizootics
The scenario of efficient early-phase transmission by unblocked fleas described in this study calls for a paradigm shift in concepts of how Y. pestis is transmitted during rapidly spreading epizootics and epidemics, including, perhaps, the Black Death.
Plague Epidemics and Lice, Democratic Republic of the Congo
A field assessment in April 2010 collected body and head lice from persons living in a highly plague-endemic area near the Rethy Health District, Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and found that body lice collected from septicemic patients were positive according to guinea pig inoculation results, demonstrating the possibility of direct louse-bite transmission of Y. pestis.
Molecular history of plague.
  • M. Drancourt, D. Raoult
  • Biology
    Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2016
Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague
The present understanding of the history, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and public health issues of plague is updated.
Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar
Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection.
Plague: A Disease Which Changed the Path of Human Civilization.
Plague caused by Yersinia pestis is a zoonotic infection, i.e., it is maintained in wildlife by animal reservoirs and on occasion spills over into human populations, causing outbreaks of different
Body Lice, Yersinia pestis Orientalis, and Black Death
The observation that body lice effectively transmitted Y. pestis through a complete cycle of transmission confirms previous experimental and field observations of experimental transmission that used body louse collected from plague patients from the same family in the absence of any other ectoparasite.
Integrative approach using Yersinia pestis genomes to revisit the historical landscape of plague during the Medieval Period
The presented phylogeny could support the hypothesis of an entry of plague into Western European ports through distinct waves of introduction during the Medieval Period, possibly by means of fur trade routes, as well as the recirculation of plague within the human population via trade routes and human movement.