Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is manifested by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, oligomenorrhoea and anovulation. PCOS patients are more vulnerable to metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, obesity endothelium dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and activation of proinflammatory factors. This association shows that PCOS might be an ovarian manifestation of a metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is also strongly correlated with reproductive failure. Approximately 100 factors, secreted in adipose tissue, are responsible for its regulation. Adipocytokines have been found to play an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity Abnormal levels of adipokines are detected in patients with insulin resistance. Studies indicate that these factors, and their different activity in PCOS women, may affect changes observed in their metabolism and, especially may participate in the development of insulin resistance. There are several adipokines whose role has been thoroughly investigated and many that we still know very little about, for example apein and visfatin. Counseling PCOS patients about the possibility of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases should be a standard of care.