The role of eyespots as anti‐predator mechanisms, principally demonstrated in the Lepidoptera

@article{Stevens2005TheRO,
  title={The role of eyespots as anti‐predator mechanisms, principally demonstrated in the Lepidoptera},
  author={Martin Stevens},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={2005},
  volume={80}
}
  • M. Stevens
  • Published 1 November 2005
  • Environmental Science
  • Biological Reviews
Eyespots are found in a variety of animals, in particular lepidopterans. The role of eyespots as antipredator mechanisms has been discussed since the 19th Century, with two main hypotheses invoked to explain their occurrence. The first is that large, centrally located eyespots intimidate predators by resembling the eyes of the predators’ own enemies; the second, though not necessarily conflicting, hypothesis is that small, peripherally located eyespots function as markers to deflect the attacks… 

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Eyespot display in the peacock butterfly triggers antipredator behaviors in naïve adult fowl

TLDR
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Artificial eyespots on cattle reduce predation by large carnivores

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References

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The Function of Eyespot Patterns in the Lepidoptera

TLDR
It has been shown that many small passerines possess inborn responses to their predators, and it is probable that these are "parasitised" by the eyespot patterns of insects.

Eye camouflage and false eyespots: chaetodontid responses to predators

  • S. Neudecker
  • Environmental Science
    Environmental Biology of Fishes
  • 2004
SynopsisThe roles of eye camouflage and eyespots are examined within the genusChaetodon as are the various theories explaining the evolutionary significance of the brilliant colors. While eye

Significance of butterfly eyespots as an anti-predator device in ground-based and aerial attacks

TLDR
This study provides no support that marginal eyespot patterns can act as an effective deflection mechanism to avoid lizard or avian predation.

Does predation maintain eyespot plasticity in Bicyclus anynana?

TLDR
The results show that natural selection acts against eyespots in the dry season, favouring crypsis, whereas in the wet season it may favour eyespots as deflective patterns.

Pattern formation on lepidopteran wings: determination of an eyespot.

BUTTERFLY EYESPOTS: THE GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLOR RINGS

The butterfly Bicyclus anynana has a series of distal eyespots on its wings. Each eyespot is composed of a white pupil, a black disc, and a gold outer ring. We applied artificial selection to the

The Lycaenid "false head" hypothesis: historical review and quantitative analysis [Lepidoptera]

TLDR
This paper reviews components of wing pattern and behavior which contribute to the appearance of a head, quantify two of these behaviors in the Neotropical "false head" lycaenid, Arawacus aetolus, and suggests that one behavior•landing head downwards•does not enhance the deceptiveness of a " false head".

Eyespot development on butterfly wings: the epidermal response to damage.

TLDR
It is shown that ectopic eyespots can be induced in nonfocal positions throughout the distal, but not the proximal, wing epidermis of Bicyclus anynana by mild epidermal damage inflicted at 12-18 hr (into a 6- to 7-day pupal period).

Does bird predation influence the spot‐number variation in Maniola jurtina (Lepidoptera)?

TLDR
For six years samples of the satyrine butterfly Maniolajurtina L. jurtina were collected on small islands in southern Sweden and scored for beak marks and it was suggested that birds act as a selective factor influencing the spot-number variation.
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