The role of effort in moderating the anxiety – performance relationship: Testing the prediction of processing efficiency theory in simulated rally driving

  title={The role of effort in moderating the anxiety – performance relationship: Testing the prediction of processing efficiency theory in simulated rally driving},
  author={Mark R. Wilson and Nickolas C. Smith and Mark Chattington and Mikenzi Bentley Ford and Dilwyn E. Marple-Horvat},
  journal={Journal of Sports Sciences},
  pages={1223 - 1233}
Abstract We tested some of the key predictions of processing efficiency theory using a simulated rally driving task. Two groups of participants were classified as either dispositionally high or low anxious based on trait anxiety scores and trained on a simulated driving task. Participants then raced individually on two similar courses under counterbalanced experimental conditions designed to manipulate the level of anxiety experienced. The effort exerted on the driving tasks was assessed though… 

The role of effort in influencing the effect of anxiety on performance: testing the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory and the conscious processing hypothesis.

Testing the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory and conscious processing hypothesis regarding effort's role in influencing the effects of anxiety on a golf putting task supported previous research suggesting that both theories offer useful theoretical frameworks for examining the relationship between anxiety and performance in sport.

From processing efficiency to attentional control: a mechanistic account of the anxiety–performance relationship

The aim of this paper is to outline the development of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory (PET) and to summarise research testing its predictions in the sporting domain. PET

Driven by distraction: investigating the effects of anxiety on driving performance using the Attentional Control Theory

This study investigates the effects of trait anxiety on self-reported driving behaviours through its negative impacts on Central Executive functions. Following a self-report study that found trait

The impact of anxiety on processing efficiency : implications for the attentional control theory

The Attentional Control Theory (ACT) proposes that high-anxious individuals maintain performance effectiveness (accuracy) at the expense of processing efficiency (response time), in particular, the

Effects of Anxiety on Anticipation and Visual Search in Dynamic, Time-Constrained Situations

We tested the predictions of Attentional Control Theory (ACT) by examining how anxiety affects visual search strategies, performance efficiency, and performance effectiveness using a dynamic,

The influence of stress on visual attention and performance execution in aiming tasks

Examination of the endocrine response in naturalistic sport environments and laboratory based stress manipulations suggests that both anxiety and cortisol reactivity effects sport performance through its influence on visual attention and movement execution.

Anxiety-linked task performance: Dissociating the influence of restricted working memory capacity and increased investment of effort

The present set of studies evaluated two specific predictions generated by Eysenck et al.'s (2007) attentional control theory of anxiety-linked task performance. First, to the extent that a task

Motivational and emotional influences on cognitive control in depression: A pupillometry study

It is concluded that anxiety inhibits the recruitment of cognitive control in depression and that a depressed individual’s motivational state determines, in part, whether he or she is able to compensate by recruiting additional cognitive control.



The Effects of Anxiety on Visual Search, Movement Kinematics, and Performance in Table Tennis: A Test of Eysenck and Calvo's Processing Efficiency Theory

Processing efficiency theory predicts that anxiety reduces the processing capacity of working memory and has detrimental effects on performance. When tasks place little demand on working memory, the

Anxiety and Performance: A Visual Search Examination of the Processing Efficiency Theory

The purpose of this study was to examine the central tenets of the Processing Efficiency Theory (PET) in the context of a dual-task auto racing simulation. Participants were placed into either high

State anxiety and motor performance: Testing the conscious processing hypothesis

For task performance, evidence was found that partially supported the conscious processing hypothesis, while the results of the kinematic analysis of the putting stroke were equivocal, and analysis of self-reported effort scores provided partial support for processing efficiency theory.

Anxiety and Performance: The Processing Efficiency Theory

Abstract Anxiety often impairs performance of “difficult” tasks (especially under test conditions), but there are numerous exceptions. Theories of anxiety and performance need to address at least two

A test of processing efficiency theory in a team sport context

Testing some key postulates of Eysenck and Calvo’s processing efficiency theory in a team sport found that mental effort ratings were higher in high trait- anxious players in settings where their performance was equivalent to that of low trait-anxious performers.

Anxiety, arousal and visual attention: a mechanistic account of performance variability

  • C. Janelle
  • Psychology
    Journal of sports sciences
  • 2002
Recommendations concerning the utility of perceptual training programmes and how these training programmes might be used as anxiety regulation interventions are discussed, and emerging evidence indicates that gaze behaviour tendencies are reliably altered when performers are anxious, leading to inefficient and often ineffective search strategies.

Compensatory reading strategies in test anxiety

Abstract The effects of test anxiety and evaluative stress on reading speed, articulatory rehearsal, reading regressions, and comprehension were examined. High- and low-test-anxiety subjects read

The Influence of Anxiety Direction on Processing Bias

In the presence of anxiety, threatening stimuli are allocated greater processing priority by high-trait-anxious individuals (Mathews, 1993). As anxiety direction (Jones, 1995) might best account for

The effects of anxiety and strategic planning on visual search behaviour

The past decade has witnessed increased interest in the visual search behaviour of athletes. Little is known, however, about the relationship between anxiety and eye movements in sport performers or

Pupil Dilation as a Measure of Processing Load in Simultaneous Interpretation and Other Language Tasks

The study lends good support to the use of the pupillary response as an indicator of processing load by showing that momentary variations in processing load during a lexical translation task are reflected in pupil size.