The role of dietary n-6 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease

@article{Willett2007TheRO,
  title={The role of dietary n-6 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease},
  author={Walter C. Willett},
  journal={Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine},
  year={2007},
  volume={8},
  pages={S42–S45}
}
  • W. Willett
  • Published 1 September 2007
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
n-6 Fatty acids, like n-3 fatty acids, play essential roles in many biological functions. Because n-6 fatty acids are the precursors of proinflammatory eicosanoids, higher intakes have been suggested to be detrimental, and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids has been suggested by some to be particularly important. However, this hypothesis is based on minimal evidence, and in humans higher intakes of n-6 fatty acids have not been associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers. n-6 Fatty… 

Figures from this paper

Recent evidence on omega 6 fatty acids and cardiovascular risk
TLDR
Omega 6 fatty acids appear to be extremely helpful in CHD risk reduction and a hypothetical reduction of omega 6 intake by the population at large would actually increaseCHD risk, but based on the most recent studies this is most probably not the case.
Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease by Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid
TLDR
The available scientific evidence suggests that Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation and clinical use ranging from 0.4 to 7g/day can provide tangible benefits, however, further studies are required to determine optimal dosing and the relative ratio of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acids that provides maximal cardio-protection and treatment of CVD.
Properties, functions of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and relationship between essential fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases
TLDR
Both the structure properties and metabolisms of fatty acids and the relationship between EFAs and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed.
Importance of a balanced omega 6/omega 3 ratio for the maintenance of health: Nutritional recommendations
TLDR
Examination of changes in dietary patterns that have led to the present reduction in the consumption of ω-3 essential fatty acids is examined, to study the importance of theπ�-6/ω-3 balance in maintaining good health and the established recommendations for preventing a poor intake.
Significant inverse associations of serum n-6 fatty acids with plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1
TLDR
Among 915 middle-aged men, serum n-6 fatty acids had significant inverse associations with PAI-1, and these associations were consistent across three populations.
Metabolic indices of polyunsaturated fatty acids: current evidence, research controversies, and clinical utility
TLDR
The most updated evidence of n-3 and n-6 PUFA effects on human health is summarized, reviewing current controversies on the aforementioned indices and whether they can be considered valuable predictors of clinical outcomes.
Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Risk. Evidence, Lack of Evidence, and Diligence
TLDR
It is concluded that fundamental research on fatty acids and lipids is appropriate in certain areas, but the rigor and reproducibility are lacking in others.
Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids in human and animal health: An African perspective
Role of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention
TLDR
The available scientific evidence suggests that n-3 PUFA supplementation and clinical use ranging from 0.4 to 1 g/day can provide tangible benefits, but further studies are required to determine optimal dosing and the relative ratio of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acids that provides maximal cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
Is there an optimal dose for dietary linoleic acid? Lessons from essential fatty acid deficiency supplementation and adipocyte functions in rats
TLDR
Dietary linoleate supplementation at 2.5 % restored anatomical, biochemical, and functional disturbances induced by EFAD, and influence on adipocyte functions does not appear to follow a typical dose–response relationship, adding further complexity to the definition of its dietary requirement.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
Habitual Dietary Intake of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids in Relation to Inflammatory Markers Among US Men and Women
TLDR
It is suggested that n-6 fatty acids do not inhibit the antiinflammatory effects of n-3 fatty acids and that the combination of both types of fatty acids is associated with the lowest levels of inflammation.
Interplay Between Different Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men
TLDR
n-3 PUFAs from both seafood and plant sources may reduce CHD risk, with little apparent influence from background n-6 PUFA intake, which has implications for populations with low consumption or availability of fatty fish.
Dietary saturated fats and their food sources in relation to the risk of coronary heart disease in women.
TLDR
A distinction between stearic acid and other saturated fats does not appear to be important in dietary advice to reduce CHD risk, in part because of the high correlation betweenStearic Acid and otheraturated fatty acids in typical diets.
Decreasing linoleic acid with constant alpha-linolenic acid in dietary fats increases (n-3) eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma phospholipids in healthy men.
TLDR
High LA intakes decrease plasma phospholipid EPA and increase the ARA:EPA ratio, but do not favor higher ARA.
Dietary fats and coronary heart disease.
  • N. Temple
  • Medicine
    Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
  • 1996
Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and diet in postmenopausal US women.
TLDR
Investigation of the distributions of fatty acids in subcutaneous-adipose-tissue aspirates and their relation to intake as assessed by a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire suggest that intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 fatty acid, and trans fatty acids are reflected in the adipose tissue but that intake of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid are not.
Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials.
TLDR
The effects of dietary fats on total:HDL cholesterol may differ markedly from their effects on LDL, and the effects of fats on these risk markers should not in themselves be considered to reflect changes in risk but should be confirmed by prospective observational studies or clinical trials.
Epidemiological Evidence of Relationships between Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial
  • T. Dolecek
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1992
TLDR
It is suggested that composition of dietary PUFA may influence CVD and cancer rates and support reports that n-3 fatty acids are protective against CVD.
The relation between dietary intake and adipose tissue composition of selected fatty acids in US women.
TLDR
The results showed that the amounts of polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids in adipose tissue reflect dietary intake and confirm those of previous studies.
...
...