The role of calcium in neuromuscular facilitation

@article{Katz1968TheRO,
  title={The role of calcium in neuromuscular facilitation},
  author={Bernard Katz and Ricardo Miledi},
  journal={The Journal of Physiology},
  year={1968},
  volume={195}
}
  • B. Katz, R. Miledi
  • Published 1 March 1968
  • Medicine, Chemistry
  • The Journal of Physiology
1. The hypothesis is put forward that a residue of the ‘active calcium’ which enters the terminal axon membrane during the nerve impulse is responsible for short‐term facilitation. 

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References

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1. The changes in neuromuscular facilitation produced by varying extracellular calcium and magnesium concentrations have been studied at the frog neuromuscular junction using intracellular recordingExpand
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TLDR
The axo‐axonic giant synapse in the stellate ganglion of the squid has been used to study synaptic transmission and provides new insights into the role of Tournaisian reprograming in synaptic transmission. Expand
The timing of calcium action during neuromuscular transmission
TLDR
Brief depolarizing pulses applied to a motor nerve ending cause packets of acetylcholine to be released and evoke end‐plate potentials (e.p.s), provided calcium ions are present in the extracellular fluid. Expand
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End-plate potentials in curarized frog muscle have been measured over a range of Ca and Mg concentrations, and the results have been compared with the predictions of this hypothesis to show that the output of ACh should depend on the proportion of the total concentration of X which is combined with calcium. Expand
Statistical factors involved in neuromuscular facilitation and depression
TLDR
The present paper is concerned with the stage of neuromuscular transmission at which facilitation and depression occur and with the question whether 'quantal' changes of e.p. amplitude are involved, involving either the number or the size of the miniature units of which the end-plate response is composed. Expand
The release of acetylcholine from nerve endings by graded electric pulses
  • B. Katz, R. Miledi
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1967
TLDR
Evidence is regarded as evidence suggesting that entry into the axon membrane of a positively charged substance (external Ca2+ ions or a calcium compound CaR+) is the first step leading to the release of acetylcholine packets from the terminal. Expand
Modification of transmitter release by electrical interference with motor nerve endings
  • B. Katz, R. Miledi
  • Materials Science, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1967
TLDR
The facilitating action of calcium on transmitter release was studied by synchronizing the arrival of the nerve impulse with a rapid increment of the external calcium concentration and an effect could be produced with very little delay. Expand
Input–Output Relation of a Single Synapse
TLDR
It has been found that brief pulses of depolarization, locally imposed on a motor nerve ending, elicit graded end-plate potentials the size of which can reach or even surpass that normally produced by a nerve impulse. Expand
The measurement of synaptic delay, and the time course of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction
  • B. Katz, R. Miledi
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1965
TLDR
The synaptic interval arises chiefly from a delay in the release of transmitter after the arrival of the nerve impulse, and the contribution of various factors to the minimum synaptic delay are discussed. Expand
Tetrodotoxin and neuromuscular transmission
  • B. Katz, R. Miledi
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1967
TLDR
It is concluded that tetrodotoxin while blocking electric excitation in nerve and muscle does not interfere with the release of acetylcholine from nerve endings nor with its local action on the muscle fibre. Expand
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