The role of ballot chiefs (matai pälota) and political parties in Sämoa's shift to universal suffrage

  title={The role of ballot chiefs (matai p{\"a}lota) and political parties in S{\"a}moa's shift to universal suffrage},
  author={Asofou So’o and Jon Fraenkel},
  journal={Commonwealth \& Comparative Politics},
  pages={333 - 361}
Sämoa shifted to universal suffrage only in 1990, after 28 years of independent self-government under a system in which only matai (chiefs or family title-holders) were entitled to vote or stand as candidates. During the matai-only franchise era, increasing numbers of honorific titles were conferred on citizens, so expanding the electoral rolls. Broadening the franchise in 1990, it was hoped, would bring a halt to the creation of ‘ballot chiefs’ (matai pälota). In this paper, we show that there… 

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