Oral absorption of peptides and nanoparticles across the human intestine: Opportunities, limitations and studies in human tissues.
BACKGROUND Intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (I-FABP) is expressed in epithelial cells of the mucosal layer of the small intestine tissue. When intestinal mucosal damage occurs, I-FABP is released into the circulation and its plasma concentration increases. In the context of obesity, the gut barrier integrity can be disrupted by dietary fat while intestinal permeability increases. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a suitable plasma marker of intestinal injury and inflammation in obesity. METHODS Twelve male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each: standard (St) and high-fat (HF) diet fed groups for 12 weeks. RESULTS HF fed animals developed obesity, insulin resistance and seemed to present increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MCP-1 and IL1β). The gut microbiota composition of these animals was also altered, with lower number of copies of Bacteroidetes, Prevotella spp. and Lactobacillus spp., in comparison with those from St diet group. Fecal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations tended to be increased in HF fed animals. Intestinal expression of TLR4 seemed to be also increased in HF fed animals suggesting that HF diet-induced dysbiosis may be behind the systemic inflammation observed. However, in contrast to other intestinal inflammatory diseases, plasma I-FABP levels were decreased in HF fed rats whereas I-FABP expression in jejunum tended to be increased. CONCLUSIONS HF diet-induced obesity is characterized by dysbiosis, insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. In this context, plasmatic I-FABP should not be used as a marker of the intestinal barrier dysfunction and the low-grade chronic inflammatory status.