The role of American black bears and brown bears as predators on ungulates in North America

  title={The role of American black bears and brown bears as predators on ungulates in North America},
  author={Peter Zager and John J. Beecham},
Abstract American black bears (Ursus americanus) and brown bears (U. arctos) can be important predators on neonatal ungulates. They prey less commonly on adult ungulates. Bear predation appears to be additive at low ungulate densities and may become compensatory as prey density approaches carrying capacity, K. As such, black and brown bear predation can limit, but generally does not regulate, ungulate populations. Maternal and neonatal physical condition, birth synchrony, and birth mass may… 

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