The rise and fall of New York murder: zero tolerance or crack's decline?

@article{Bowling1999TheRA,
  title={The rise and fall of New York murder: zero tolerance or crack's decline?},
  author={Ben Bowling},
  journal={British Journal of Criminology},
  year={1999},
  volume={39},
  pages={531-554}
}
  • Ben Bowling
  • Published 1 September 1999
  • Law
  • British Journal of Criminology
The striking reduction in homicide in New York City between 1991 and 1997 has been claimed as a great success for a 'new policing tactic dubbed 'zero tolerance' - the aggressive enforcement of minor offences. The evidence that changes in policing made 'all the difference' is largely circumstantial, however, Homicide rates were at an all-time high in 1990-91 and had begun to decline before any radical changes in policing policy were instituted. The 1985-91 'murder spike' has been attributed… 

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