The ring nerve of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

  title={The ring nerve of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora},
  author={Anders Garm and Yves Poussart and Linda Parkefelt and Peter Ekstr{\"o}m and Dan-Eric Nilsson},
  journal={Cell and Tissue Research},
Box jellyfish have the most elaborate sensory system and behavioural repertoire of all cnidarians. Sensory input largely comes from 24 eyes situated on four club-shaped sensory structures, the rhopalia, and behaviour includes obstacle avoidance, light shaft attractance and mating. To process the sensory input and convert it into the appropriate behaviour, the box jellyfish have a central nervous system (CNS) but this is still poorly understood. The CNS has two major components: the rhopalial… 

Neuropeptide expression in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora—New insights into the complexity of a “simple” nervous system

The studies show hitherto‐unseen details of the nervous system of T. cystophora and allowed us to identify specific functional groups of neurons, important for understanding visual processing in the RNS and enables experimental work, directly addressing the role of the different neuropeptides in vision.

The two nerve rings of the hypostomal nervous system of Hydra vulgaris—an immunohistochemical analysis

Phase contrast, darkfield, and antibody-labeled images reveal that the mouth of hydra comprises five or six epithelial folds whose endoderm extensively labels with anti-GABAB receptor antibody, suggesting that endodermal metabotrobic GABA receptors are also involved in regulating mouth behavior.

The nerve ring in cnidarians: its presence and structure in hydrozoan medusae.

Do jellyfish have central nervous systems?

Summary The traditional view of the cnidarian nervous system is of a diffuse nerve net that functions as both a conducting and an integrating system; this is considered an indicator of a primitive

A two‐step process in the emergence of neurogenesis

Striking examples are the ParaHox Gsx, Pax, Six, COUP‐TF and Twist‐type regulators, which seemingly exert neurogenic functions in cnidarians, including eye differentiation, and support the view of a two‐step process in the emergence of neurogenesis.

Organization of the Ectodermal Nervous Structures in Medusae: Cubomedusae

The results offer insight into how the peripheral nerve nets of box jellyfish are organized to produce the complex swimming, feeding, and defensive behaviors observed in cubomedusae.

Prominent system of RFamide immunoreactive neurons in the rhopalia of box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa)

It is suggested that the RFamide‐ir nervous system in the rhopalia of cubomedusae is more widespread and comprises more cells than earlier discerned, suggesting that the system might not only integrate visual input but also signals from other senses.

Cnidarian Nerve Nets and Neuromuscular Efficiency Comparative

A comparison of neural control of two-dimensional muscle sheets in a mollusc and jellyfish suggests that a possible primitive feature of cnidarian neurons may be a lack of regional specialization into conducting and transmitting regions.

Complex neural architecture in the diploblastic larva of Clava multicornis (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

The organization of the cnidarian nervous system has been widely documented in polyps and medusae, but little is known about the nervous system of planula larvae, which give rise to adult forms after

Swim pacemaker response to bath applied neurotransmitters in the cubozoan Tripedalia cystophora

Famide, serotonin and dopamine are shown to have inhibitory effect on the pacemaker frequency and there are some indications that the fast acting acetylcholine and glycine have an initial effect and then rapidly desensitise.



Bilaterally symmetrical rhopalial nervous system of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

The strikingly complex and partially bilaterally symmetrical nervous system found in each rhopalium of the box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, is described and an atlas‐like series of drawings are presented, indicating that visual processing and integration at least partly happen within the rhopalia.

Rhopalia are integrated parts of the central nervous system in box jellyfish

Results indicate that cubomedusae have one coherent CNS including the rhopalia, and a novel gastrodermal nerve has been found in the stalk; this nerve is not involved in visual processing but is likely to be mechanosensory and part of a proprioceptory system.

The bilaterally symmetric rhopalial nervous system of box jellyfish

The strikingly complex and partially bilaterally symmetrical nervous system found in each rhopalium of the box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, is described and an atlas-like series of drawings are presented, indicating that visual processing and integration at least partly happen within the rhopalia.

Central Neural Circuitry in the Jellyfish Aglantha

Twelve neuronal and two excitable epithelial conduction systems are described and their interactions summarized in Aglantha, which lacks a brain, but the two marginal nerve rings function together as a central nervous system.

Muscle Organization of the Cubozoan Jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora Conant 1897

The arrangement of striated muscle in the frenula suggests that these structures may function in directional nozzle formation of the velarium during turning and in hinge formation to aid bending of the pedalia and tentacles into the subumbrella during feeding and protective responses.

The anatomy of the nervous system of the hydrozoan jellyfish, Polyorchis penicillatus, as revealed by a monoclonal antibody

Immunohistochemical labelling with mAb 5C6 of whole-mount preparations and paraffin sections provided a far more complete picture of the organisation of the hydromedusan nervous system than was previously available when using neuronal labelling techniques that restrict labelling to certain neuronal types.

Die Ultrastruktur des neuromuskulären Systems der Medusen von Tripedalia cystophora und Carybdea marsupialis (Coelenterata, Cubozoa)

The pacemakers responsible for initiation of swimming contractions in cubomedusae are located in the four rhopalia, and the neuromuscular synapses and contacts between retina cells are asymmetrical (=polarized).

Ocelli of hydromedusae

SummaryThe very simple ocelli of Leuckartiara octona are formed of a sheet of mixed ectodermal receptor and pigment cells, whereas in Bougainvillia the cell sheet is invaginated to form an ocellar

Central circuitry in the jellyfish Aglantha. II: The ring giant and carrier systems

  • MackieMeech
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1995
The findings show that the ring giant axon functions in close collaboration with the carrier system, increasing the latter's effective conduction velocity, and that interactions with other neuronal sub-systems are probably mediated exclusively by the carriers.

Advanced optics in a jellyfish eye

It is shown that box-jellyfish lenses contain a finely tuned refractive index gradient producing nearly aberration-free imaging, demonstrating that even simple animals have been able to evolve the sophisticated visual optics previously known only from a few advanced bilaterian phyla.