The return of Phineas Gage: clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient.

  title={The return of Phineas Gage: clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient.},
  author={Hanna Damasio and Thomas J. Grabowski and Ray J. Frank and A M Galaburda and Antonio R. Damasio},
  volume={264 5162},
When the landmark patient Phineas Gage died in 1861, no autopsy was performed, but his skull was later recovered. The brain lesion that caused the profound personality changes for which his case became famous has been presumed to have involved the left frontal region, but questions have been raised about the involvement of other regions and about the exact placement of the lesion within the vast frontal territory. Measurements from Gage's skull and modern neuroimaging techniques were used to… 

Phineas Gage: The brain and the behavior

Restoring Phineas Gage: A 150th Retrospective

  • M. Macmillan
  • Psychology
    Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 2000
There is a good deal of inaccuracy in what has been written about Phineas Gage and an ignorance or disregard of what is contained in the primary sources about Gage is coupled with a tendency to attribute to him characteristics that belong to other cases of frontal damage.

Frontal lobe function: Mr. Phineas Gage's famous injury.

  • T. Neylan
  • Psychology
    The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences
  • 1999
The Gage case played a crucial role in the discovery of behavioral syndromes resulting from frontal lobe dysfunction and was used as a persuasive argument against the field of phrenology, which was the only prominent discipline at the time that considered the possibility of localization of brain function.

Phineas Gage's great legacy

The case of Phineas Gage is a fixed element in the studies of neurology, psychology, and neuroscience, having been solidified as one of the greatest medical curiosities of all time, deserving its prominence.

Phineas Gage's contribution to brain surgery.

  • M. Macmillan
  • Medicine
    Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 1996
The context of the localisation debate is set out, concentrating particularly on Broca's clinical observations, and the relation between the Gage case and the operations performed by Burckhardt, Moniz, and Freeman is discussed.

From Phineas Gage and Monsieur Leborgne to H.M.: Revisiting Disconnection Syndromes

It is confirmed that the damaged tracts link areas that in contemporary neuroscience are considered functionally engaged for tasks related to emotion and decision-making, language production, and declarative memory in Phineas Gage, Leborgne, and Molaison.

The tale of Phineas Gage, digitally remastered.

The results show that the cerebral injury of Phineas Gage was limited to the left frontal lobe, did not extend to the contralateral side,did not affect the ventricular system, and did not involve vital intracranial vascular structures.

Case Report The Tale of Phineas Gage , Digitally Remastered

The injury of Phineas Gage has fueled research on and fascination with the localization of cerebral functions in the past century and a half and a new biomechanical model is proposed in order to determine the location and extent of the injury and explain Gage’s improbable survival.

Footprints of phineas gage: Historical beginnings on the origins of brain and behavior and the birth of cerebral localizationism

The amazing story of Phineas Gage is a classic case in the nineteenth-century neurosciences literature that played a pivotal role in the concept of cerebral localizationism, a theory that moved beyond phrenology.



Three-dimensional in vivo mapping of brain lesions in humans.

Three-dimensional lesion mapping technique based on the manipulation of magnetic resonance raw data obtained with a special protocol permits the direct visual identification of neuroanatomical landmarks in each brain specimen and eliminates the need to rely on averaged templates of human brain sections.

Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain

Brain books are similarly popular: humans are considered from a pathological/laboratory perspective and computer metaphors abound (your mind is your software!) and there are boxes and arrows in profusion.

The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: theoretical analysis and modeling in a neuronal network.

The different versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test are described, and the results obtained with normal subjects and brain-lesioned patients are reviewed, and a computational analysis is used to reveal what algorithms may pass the test, and to predict their respective performances.

The attention system of the human brain.

Illustration de trois fonctions principales qui sont predominantes dans l'etude de l'intervention de l'attention dans les processus cognitifs: 1) orientation vers des evenements sensoriels; 2)

Genetic influences in criminal convictions: evidence from an adoption cohort.

The possibility that genetic factors are among the causes of criminal behavior was tested by comparing court convictions of 14,427 adoptees with those of their biological and adoptive parents, and there was no statistically significant correlation between adoptee and adoptive parent court convictions.

Working memory and the mind.