The return of Phineas Gage: clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient.

@article{Damasio1994TheRO,
  title={The return of Phineas Gage: clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient.},
  author={Hanna Damasio and Thomas J. Grabowski and Ray J. Frank and A M Galaburda and Antonio R. Damasio},
  journal={Science},
  year={1994},
  volume={264 5162},
  pages={
          1102-5
        }
}
When the landmark patient Phineas Gage died in 1861, no autopsy was performed, but his skull was later recovered. The brain lesion that caused the profound personality changes for which his case became famous has been presumed to have involved the left frontal region, but questions have been raised about the involvement of other regions and about the exact placement of the lesion within the vast frontal territory. Measurements from Gage's skull and modern neuroimaging techniques were used to… 

Phineas Gage: The brain and the behavior

Restoring Phineas Gage: A 150th Retrospective

  • M. Macmillan
  • Psychology
    Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 2000
TLDR
There is a good deal of inaccuracy in what has been written about Phineas Gage and an ignorance or disregard of what is contained in the primary sources about Gage is coupled with a tendency to attribute to him characteristics that belong to other cases of frontal damage.

Frontal lobe function: Mr. Phineas Gage's famous injury.

  • T. Neylan
  • Psychology
    The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences
  • 1999
TLDR
The Gage case played a crucial role in the discovery of behavioral syndromes resulting from frontal lobe dysfunction and was used as a persuasive argument against the field of phrenology, which was the only prominent discipline at the time that considered the possibility of localization of brain function.

Phineas among the phrenologists: the American crowbar case and nineteenth-century theories of cerebral localization.

  • F. Barker
  • Psychology
    Journal of neurosurgery
  • 1995
TLDR
The educational backgrounds of Harlow and Bigelow are examined to explain their differing attitudes toward the case, and Harlow's more closely matched emerging theories of cerebral localization.

Phineas Gage's great legacy

TLDR
The case of Phineas Gage is a fixed element in the studies of neurology, psychology, and neuroscience, having been solidified as one of the greatest medical curiosities of all time, deserving its prominence.

Phineas Gage's contribution to brain surgery.

  • M. Macmillan
  • Medicine
    Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 1996
TLDR
The context of the localisation debate is set out, concentrating particularly on Broca's clinical observations, and the relation between the Gage case and the operations performed by Burckhardt, Moniz, and Freeman is discussed.

From Phineas Gage and Monsieur Leborgne to H.M.: Revisiting Disconnection Syndromes

TLDR
It is confirmed that the damaged tracts link areas that in contemporary neuroscience are considered functionally engaged for tasks related to emotion and decision-making, language production, and declarative memory in Phineas Gage, Leborgne, and Molaison.

The tale of Phineas Gage, digitally remastered.

TLDR
The results show that the cerebral injury of Phineas Gage was limited to the left frontal lobe, did not extend to the contralateral side,did not affect the ventricular system, and did not involve vital intracranial vascular structures.

Case Report The Tale of Phineas Gage , Digitally Remastered

TLDR
The injury of Phineas Gage has fueled research on and fascination with the localization of cerebral functions in the past century and a half and a new biomechanical model is proposed in order to determine the location and extent of the injury and explain Gage’s improbable survival.
...

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