The reproductive-cell cycle theory of aging: An update

  title={The reproductive-cell cycle theory of aging: An update},
  author={Craig S Atwood and Richard L. Bowen},
  journal={Experimental Gerontology},

The disposable soma theory revisited: Time as a resource in the theories of aging

It is suggested that the ability to devote longer periods of time to repair and maintenance is a key feature of longer-lived species, and that evolutionary pressure to complete repair and resume cell division is a determinant of species lifespan.

The interconnections between somatic and ovarian aging in murine models.

Delaying ovarian aging will not only increase the fertility window of middle age females, but may also actively prevent menopausal-related decline in systemic health parameters, compressing the period of morbidity in mid-to-late life in females.

A New Look At the Origin of the Immune System and NewImmune Theory of Aging: Lymphocyte Regulation of CellularGrowth of Somatic Tissues: (History and Modern Concepts)

This work has proposed a theory of self-organizing “cellular hyper cycle” based on the general theory of hyper cycle, which isbased on the evident inevitability of the generation during evolution of higher order regulatory relations between selfreplicating units and systems of lower order.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis homeostasis predicts longevity

The relationship between longevity and menopause, including other factors that impact “ovarian lifespan” such as births, oophorectomy, and hormone replacement therapy, is analyzed to support the maintenance of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in homeostasis in prolonging human longevity.

Does the degree of endocrine dyscrasia post-reproduction dictate post-reproductive lifespan? Lessons from semelparous and iteroparous species

It is suggested that organisms with greater reproductive endocrine dyscrasia more rapidly undergo senescence and die, and the contribution post-reproduction by non-gonadal tissues to circulating sex hormones dictates post- reproductive tissue health and longevity.

Human Embryonic Stem Cells: A Model System for Delineating the Molecular Basis of Human Embryogenesis and Aging-related Diseases

The potential for using hESC, embryoid bodies (EBs) and neuroectodermal rosettes to gain insights into how reproductive endocrine dyscrasia associated with menopause/andropause drives aberrant cell cycle signalling mechanisms leading to age-related diseases including neurodegeneration and associated cognitive decline is described.

Hormones of Hypothalamus in Aging

Various hormonal changes that occur with age in hypothalamus and pituitary gland are discussed and how these two master regulators gradually lose their sensitivity with the increasing age is discussed.

"Lymphocyte Regulation of Cellular Growth of Somatic Tissues: A New Look at the Origin of the Immune System and New Immune Theory of Aging (History and Modern Concepts)"

This work has proposed a theory of selforganizing “cellular hypercycle” based on the general theory of hypercycle, a concept of intrinsic self-organization that determines the integration and coordinated evolution of a system of functionally related self-replicating units.

Identification of Late Larval Stage Developmental Checkpoints in Caenorhabditis elegans Regulated by Insulin/IGF and Steroid Hormone Signaling Pathways

It is shown here that specific checkpoints exist in the early L3 and early L4 stages that systemically arrest the development of diverse tissues and cellular processes and identify a novel mode of C. elegans growth in which development progresses from one checkpoint to the next.



Signals from the reproductive system regulate the lifespan of C. elegans

The C. elegans insulin/IGF-1 system integrates multiple signals to define the animal's rate of ageing, and this study demonstrates an inherent relationship between the reproductive state of this animal and its lifespan, and may have implications for the co-evolution of reproductive capability and longevity.

Living and Dying for Sex

It is proposed that the hormones that regulate reproduction act in an antagonistic pleiotrophic manner to control aging via cell cycle signaling; promoting growth and development early in life in order to achieve reproduction, but later in life, in a futile attempt to maintain reproduction, become dysregulated and drive senescence.

Are reproductive and somatic senescence coupled in humans? Late, but not early, reproduction correlated with longevity in historical Sami women

The results suggest that reproductive and somatic senescence may have been coupled in these human populations, and that selection could have favoured late reproduction in historical post-reproductive Sami women.

Regulation of Life-Span by Germ-Line Stem Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans

The germ line of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Influences life-span by influencing the production of, or the response to, a steroid hormone that promotes longevity.

No extension of lifespan by ablation of germ line in Drosophila

It is found that germ line ablated females had reduced longevity relative to controls and that the removal of the germ line led to an over-proliferation of the somatic stem cells in the germarium, contrasting with the widely held view that it is downstream reproductive processes such as the production and/or laying of eggs that are costly to females.

Dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis with Menopause and Andropause Promotes Neurodegenerative Senescence

It is proposed that dysregulated HPG hormone signaling with menopause/andropause leads to the abortive reentry of differentiated neurons into the cell cycle via a process the authors term "dyosis," which results in a hormonal milieu that is permissive of cell cycle reentry but does not allow completion of metaphase.