The rentier state, interest groups, and the paradox of autonomy: state and business in Turkey and Iran

@inproceedings{Shambayati1994TheRS,
  title={The rentier state, interest groups, and the paradox of autonomy: state and business in Turkey and Iran},
  author={Hootan Shambayati},
  year={1994}
}
The low levels of taxation in the Middle East can be the envy of both governments and citizens of industrialized nations. In 1980 direct taxes averaged less than 11 percent of total government revenue in the Middle East, while the world average was 63 percent.' Instead of taxing their own populations, Middle Eastern and North African governments are heavily dependent on nontax revenues generated from sources outside the physical boundaries of territories they rule. They depend on external… Expand
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