The relative bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powders for use in food fortification

  title={The relative bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powders for use in food fortification},
  author={Michael Hoppe and Lena Hulth{\'e}n and Leif Hallberg},
  journal={European Journal of Nutrition},
SummaryBackgroundBioavailability data in humans of elemental iron powders is limited although elemental iron is a common form of iron when used as a fortificant.Aim of the studyThe relative bioavailability (RBV) of seven elemental iron powders, five commercially available and two developmental are evaluated. In addition, one commercial electrolytic iron powder given with ascorbic acid (AA) was examined.MethodsBased on a validated method this double–blinded randomized crossover study included… 
Iron Absorption from Iron-Enriched Aspergillus oryzae Is Similar to Ferrous Sulfate in Healthy Female Subjects
Iron-enriched A. oryzae has high relative bioavailability and may cause lower iron surges into the blood compared to FeSO4, and the area under the curve did not reflect the absorption of ASP iron, but rather the rate of iron release.
An irradiated electrolytic iron fortificant is poorly absorbed by humans and is less responsive than FeSO4 to the enhancing effect of ascorbic acid.
The bioavailability of the irradiated electrolytic iron was poor in humans and the diminished influence of ascorbic acid on the absorption of less soluble iron sources such as elemental iron powders may be an important consideration when choosing iron fortificants.
Iron Bioavailability from Pate Enriched with Encapsulated Ferric Pyrophosphate or Ferrous Gluconate in Rats
Iron bioavailability of pate enriched with ferrous gluconate or ferric pyrophosphate encapsulated in liposomes was similar, and thus both sources of iron are good candidates to be used as fortifiers in meat based products.
Bioavailability of iron from novel hydrogen reduced iron powders: Studies in Caco-2 cells and rat model.
The novel hydrogen-reduced elemental iron powders used in this study had higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability compared to reference EIP (≤45 µm) in in vitro and in vivo models, respectively.
A comparison of physical properties, screening procedures and a human efficacy trial for predicting the bioavailability of commercial elemental iron powders used for food fortification.
  • S. Lynch, T. Bothwell
  • Materials Science
    International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition
  • 2007
It is concluded that there is significant variability in the bioavailability of the commercial iron powders that were evaluated (those used for food fortification at the time that these studies were initiated), and that bioavailability is related in part to production method.
The importance of bioavailability of dietary iron in relation to the expected effect from iron fortification
It is difficult to achieve good effects on iron status from iron fortification as the only measure if the diet has low bioavailability, but after dietary modifications such a diet shows a positive effect on iron stores.
Comparison of the efficacy of wheat-based snacks fortified with ferrous sulfate, electrolytic iron, or hydrogen-reduced elemental iron: randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in Thai women.
Ferrous sulfate, electrolytic iron, and hydrogen-reduced iron, fortified into wheat-based snacks, significantly improved iron status in Thai women with low iron stores and was compared to no fortification iron or 12 mg Fe/d for 6 d/wk for 35 wk.
Effect of Iron Source on Color and Appearance of Micronutrient-Fortified Corn Flour Tortillas
ABSTRACT Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread occurrence. Consequently, iron is commonly added in cereal fortification programs. However, many iron sources cause undesirable sensory changes,


Serum iron concentration as a tool to measure relative iron absorption from elemental iron powders in man
Measuring increases in S‐Fe could be a reliable and simple method to determine the RBV in comparative studies of elemental iron powders in relation to FeSO4.
Bioavailability of elemental iron powders to rats is less than bakery-grade ferrous sulfate and predicted by iron solubility and particle surface area.
Solubility testing of the iron powders resulted in different relative rankings and better RBV predictability with increasing time at pH 1.0 and surface area were predictive of iron bioavailability in rats.
Low bioavailability of carbonyl iron in man: studies on iron fortification of wheat flour.
The low and variable bioavailability of carbonyl iron in man, makes it necessary to reconsider the rationale of using elemental iron powders for the fortification of foods for human consumption.
Comparison of in vitro, animal, and clinical determinations of iron bioavailability: International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group Task Force report on iron bioavailability.
Results obtained with the AOAC method serve as the most reliable prediction of Fe bioavailability in the human although in vitro dialysis is a promising screening technique.
The usefulness of elemental iron for cereal flour fortification: a SUSTAIN Task Force report. Sharing United States Technology to Aid in the Improvement of Nutrition.
This review evaluates the usefulness of the different elemental iron powders based on results from in vitro studies, rat assays, human bioavailability studies, and efficacy studies monitoring iron status in human subjects and concludes that, at the present time, only electrolytic iron powder can be recommended as an iron fortificant.
Effectiveness of iron-fortified infant cereal in prevention of iron deficiency anemia.
Iron-fortified infant rice cereal can contribute substantially to preventing iron deficiency anemia, and the results are in accord with these findings.
The absorption of iron as supplements in infant cereal and infant formulas.
Iron supplementation of infant cereals with sodium iron pyrophosphate, ferric orthoph phosphate, and reduced iron of large particle size does not provide a predictable and available source of iron to meet the needs of infants.
The concept of iron bioavailability and its assessment
A broad overview of historical and current methods for the assessment of iron bioavailability was given, which can be divided into iron solubility studies, iron absorption studies, endpoint measures, and arithmetic models.
Studies in iron absorption. V. Effect of gastrointestinal factors on iron absorption.
Local intestinal factors were examined in 240 iron absorption studies on 150 healthy subjects and ascorbic acid in the intestinal lumen trebled the absorption even of ferrous iron.
The validation of using serum iron increase to measure iron absorption in human subjects
Evidence that it is possible to use the change in serum Fe as a measure of Fe absorption is strengthened, e.g. when establishing the relative bioavailability for Fe powders, after the results imply that the induced serum Fe increase following 100 mg Fe added to a food could predict the Fe absorption of a small dose ofFe added to the same meal.