The relative bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powders for use in food fortification

@article{Hoppe2006TheRB,
  title={The relative bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powders for use in food fortification},
  author={Michael Hoppe and Lena Hulth{\'e}n and Leif Hallberg},
  journal={European Journal of Nutrition},
  year={2006},
  volume={45},
  pages={37-44}
}
SummaryBackgroundBioavailability data in humans of elemental iron powders is limited although elemental iron is a common form of iron when used as a fortificant.Aim of the studyThe relative bioavailability (RBV) of seven elemental iron powders, five commercially available and two developmental are evaluated. In addition, one commercial electrolytic iron powder given with ascorbic acid (AA) was examined.MethodsBased on a validated method this double–blinded randomized crossover study included… 
Iron Absorption from Iron-Enriched Aspergillus oryzae Is Similar to Ferrous Sulfate in Healthy Female Subjects
TLDR
Iron-enriched A. oryzae has high relative bioavailability and may cause lower iron surges into the blood compared to FeSO4, and the area under the curve did not reflect the absorption of ASP iron, but rather the rate of iron release.
An irradiated electrolytic iron fortificant is poorly absorbed by humans and is less responsive than FeSO4 to the enhancing effect of ascorbic acid.
TLDR
The bioavailability of the irradiated electrolytic iron was poor in humans and the diminished influence of ascorbic acid on the absorption of less soluble iron sources such as elemental iron powders may be an important consideration when choosing iron fortificants.
Iron Bioavailability from Pate Enriched with Encapsulated Ferric Pyrophosphate or Ferrous Gluconate in Rats
TLDR
Iron bioavailability of pate enriched with ferrous gluconate or ferric pyrophosphate encapsulated in liposomes was similar, and thus both sources of iron are good candidates to be used as fortifiers in meat based products.
Bioavailability of iron from novel hydrogen reduced iron powders: Studies in Caco-2 cells and rat model.
TLDR
The novel hydrogen-reduced elemental iron powders used in this study had higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability compared to reference EIP (≤45 µm) in in vitro and in vivo models, respectively.
A comparison of physical properties, screening procedures and a human efficacy trial for predicting the bioavailability of commercial elemental iron powders used for food fortification.
  • S. Lynch, T. Bothwell
  • Materials Science
    International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition
  • 2007
TLDR
It is concluded that there is significant variability in the bioavailability of the commercial iron powders that were evaluated (those used for food fortification at the time that these studies were initiated), and that bioavailability is related in part to production method.
The importance of bioavailability of dietary iron in relation to the expected effect from iron fortification
TLDR
It is difficult to achieve good effects on iron status from iron fortification as the only measure if the diet has low bioavailability, but after dietary modifications such a diet shows a positive effect on iron stores.
Comparison of the efficacy of wheat-based snacks fortified with ferrous sulfate, electrolytic iron, or hydrogen-reduced elemental iron: randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in Thai women.
TLDR
Ferrous sulfate, electrolytic iron, and hydrogen-reduced iron, fortified into wheat-based snacks, significantly improved iron status in Thai women with low iron stores and was compared to no fortification iron or 12 mg Fe/d for 6 d/wk for 35 wk.
Effect of Iron Source on Color and Appearance of Micronutrient-Fortified Corn Flour Tortillas
ABSTRACT Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread occurrence. Consequently, iron is commonly added in cereal fortification programs. However, many iron sources cause undesirable sensory changes,
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