The relative age effect in European professional soccer: Did ten years of research make any difference?

@article{Helsen2012TheRA,
  title={The relative age effect in European professional soccer: Did ten years of research make any difference?},
  author={Werner F. Helsen and Joseph Baker and S Michiels and J. Schorer and Jan van Winckel and A. Mark Williams},
  journal={Journal of Sports Sciences},
  year={2012},
  volume={30},
  pages={1665 - 1671}
}
Abstract The relative age effect (RAE) refers to an asymmetry in the birth-date distribution favouring players born early in the selection year and discriminating against participants born later in the year. While the RAE effect was initially reported in sport more than two decades ago, there have been few attempts to examine whether player selection strategies have changed over time in light of our improved understanding of the phenomenon. We compared the birth-date distributions of… 
Did the Relative Age Effect Change Over a Decade in Elite Youth Ski Racing?
TLDR
Assessment of the magnitude of the RAE in youth ski racers aged 10–14 years has changed during the last decade by comparing the periods 2005–2009 and 2015–2019 indicated no change, emphasizing the robust nature of this phenomenon.
The Relative Age Effect (RAE) in Youth and Professional Soccer Players in Turkey
TLDR
It is suggested that competitor player age grades should revive for youths in the maturation phases as the RAE was a major factor in the selection of elite soccer players in Turkey.
Geographical Variations in the Interaction of Relative Age Effects in Youth and Adult Elite Soccer
TLDR
Test for carry-over effects from previously found constituent year effects among players participating in the 2014 soccer World Cup and for long-term effects of age grouping structures used during earlier stages of talent development indicate that long- term effects ofAge grouping structures in earlier high-level talent development structures exist.
Relative age effect in Turkish soccer
Relative Age Effect (RAE) refers to the difference between the individuals who were born in the early or the later period of the same year. The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence
Relative Age Effect in Elite German Soccer: Influence of Gender and Competition Level
TLDR
The data show an RAE in female and male German adult soccer, which could be accompanied by a loss of valuable elite players during the youth phase of the career, Consequently, the pool of talented players at the adult level would be limited.
The Relative Age Effect in the 2013 FIFA U-17 Soccer World Cup Competition
TLDR
The results of this investigation show that at the highest level of youth soccer, the RAE still exists and is a strong bias toward inclusion of players born early in the concerned year.
The Relative Age Effect in Poland's Elite Youth Soccer Players
TLDR
To reduce the RAE related to identifying soccer talent, tools should be implemented to optimize the player-selection process, such as those that consider the biological development of a player.
Prevalence of Relative Age Effect in Russian Soccer: The Role of Chronological Age and Performance
TLDR
RAE is highly prevalent in Russian children and junior soccer and is associated with the level of competitiveness, which is most likely due to the wider selection of players, not limited by their age and place of residence.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 46 REFERENCES
The relative age effect in soccer: A match-related perspective
TLDR
It is suggested that match-based variables may provide a more reliable indication of the relative age effect in soccer.
Relative age effect in female sport: a diachronic examination of soccer players
TLDR
This study investigated the whole sample of female soccer players affiliated to the French Soccer Federation for the 2006–2007 season, and found a significantly biased distribution of dropout players' birthdates was found for the <10, <14, and <17 categories.
The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe
TLDR
The results showed an over-representation of players born in the first quarter of the selection year for all the national youth selections at the under-15, under-16, U-17 and U-18 age categories, as well as for the UEFA U-16 tournaments and Meridian Cup.
Effect of a change in selection year on success in male soccer players
TLDR
Investigation of changes in birth‐date distributions throughout youth categories for 1996–1997 compared to the 1997–1998 competitive years indicated that from 1996 to 1997, youth players born from January to March were more likely to be identified as “talented” and to be exposed to higher levels of coaching.
The influence of relative age on success and dropout in male soccer players
TLDR
Results indicated that youth players born from August to October (the early part of the selection year), beginning in the 6–8 year age group, are more likely to be identified as talented and to be exposed to higher levels of coaching, and to become involved professionally.
The Relative Age Effect in Soccer: Cross-Cultural Evidence for a Systematic Discrimination against Children Born Late in the Competition Year
Previous findings of skewed birth date distributions among sports professionals have been interpreted as evidence for a systematic discrimination against children born shortly before the cut-off date
Relative age effects in professional German soccer: A historical analysis
TLDR
Examination of RAEs in players, head coaches and referees who represented professional soccer clubs or officiated in the Bundesliga from 1963/64 to 2006/07 found inequalities associated with annual age-grouping appear to extend beyond a playing career.
Relative age is associated with sport dropout: evidence from youth categories of French basketball
TLDR
Investigation of the relative age effect as a factor of basketball dropout confirmed that the RAE should be taken into consideration in studies about sport dropout as a variable that may influence this phenomenon significantly.
Relative age effect in Spanish association football: Its extent and implications for wasted potential
TLDR
Comparisons between players from the Spanish Professional Football League, all age categories of these clubs' youth teams, the Under-17 to Under-21 national teams, and the national team suggest that talent identification and selection processes can be improved to help better identify potential talent early on and minimize wasted potential.
“Born to Play Ball” The Relative Age Effect and Major League Baseball
The records of 837 major league baseball players were examined in order to determine whether the Little League age eligibility criterion, based on the month of birth, affected participation rate at
...
...