Association of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol with the Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in a Community-Based Population
BACKGROUND We sought to investigate the relationships among the plasma levels of carotenoids, tocopherols, endogenous antioxidants, oxidative damage and lipid profiles and their possible effects on the cardiovascular risk associated with hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS The study groups were divided into HD and healthy subjects. Plasma carotenoid, tocopherol and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH), were measured by HPLC. Blood antioxidant enzymes, kidney function biomarkers and the lipid profiles were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS Plasma lycopene levels and blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were significantly decreased in HD patients compared with healthy subjects. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), creatinine, urea, MDA, GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased in HD (p < 0.05). Lycopene levels were correlated with MDA (r = -0.50; p < 0.01), LDL-c (r = -0.38; p = 0.01) levels, the LDL-c/HDL-c index (r = -0.33; p = 0.03) and GPx activity (r = 0.30; p = 0.03). Regression models showed that lycopene levels were correlated with LDL-c (β estimated = -31.59; p = 0.04), while gender was correlated with the TC/HDL-c index and triglycerides. Age did not present a correlation with the parameters evaluated. GPx activity was negatively correlated with MDA levels and with the LDL-c/HDL-c and CT/HDL-c indexes. CONCLUSIONS Lycopene may represent an additional factor that contributes to reduced lipid peroxidation and atherogenesis in hemodialysis patients.