The relationship of phantom limb pain to other phantom limb phenomena in upper extremity amputees

@article{Montoya1997TheRO,
  title={The relationship of phantom limb pain to other phantom limb phenomena in upper extremity amputees},
  author={Pedro Montoya and Wolfgang Dr. Larbig and Norbert Grulke and Herta Flor and Niels Birbaumer},
  journal={PAIN},
  year={1997},
  volume={72},
  pages={87-93}
}
In thirty-two unilateral upper extremity amputees with and without phantom limb pain, various phantom limb phenomena were investigated. In general, the incidence of non-painful phantom limb sensations was higher in patients with phantom limb pain than in pain-free amputees. Kinesthetic and kinetic phantom limb sensations were reported more frequently than exteroceptive cutaneous sensations. There was a significant positive correlation between phantom limb pain and stump pain. Patients more… CONTINUE READING
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