Emotional modulation of multiple memory systems: implications for the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder.
This study examined the relationship of dissociation at the time of trauma, as assessed by the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire, Rater Version (PDEQ-RV; C.R. Marmar, D.S. Weiss, & T.J. Metzler, in press), and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a group of 77 female Vietnam theater veterans. PDEQ-RV ratings were found to be associated strongly with posttraumatic stress symptomatology, as measured by the Impact of Event Scale (M.J. Horowitz, N. Wilner, & W. Alvarez, 1979), and also positively associated with level of stress exposure and general dissociative tendencies, measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The PDEQ-RV was unassociated with general psychiatric symptomatology, as assessed by the clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (J.N. Butcher, W.G. Dahlstrom, J.R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989). The PDEQ-RV was predictive of posttraumatic stress symptoms beyond the contributions of level of stress exposure and general dissociative tendencies. The findings provide further support for the reliability and validity of the PDEQ-RV as a measure of peritraumatic dissociation.