Anthropometry, Amplitude of Accommodation, and Spherical Equivalent Refractive Error in a Nigerian Population
PURPOSE To describe the association of ocular dimensions and refraction with adult stature. METHODS This was a population-based cross-sectional survey of adult Chinese aged 40 to 81 years residing in the Tanjong Pagar district in SINGAPORE: As part of the examination, ocular dimensions, including axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and vitreous chamber depth, were measured using an A-mode ultrasound device. Corneal radius and refraction were determined with an autorefractor, with refraction further refined subjectively. Height (in meters) and weight (in kilograms) were measured using a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight divided by the square of the height (kilograms per square meter). RESULTS Data on ocular biometry, refraction, height, and weight were available on 951 (55.4%) participants with phakic eyes. After controlling for age, sex, education, occupation, housing type, income, and weight, it was found that taller persons were more likely to have longer axial lengths (+0.23 mm longer axial length, for every 0.10 m difference in height), deeper anterior chambers (+0.07 mm), thinner lenses (-0.09 mm), longer vitreous chambers (+0.26 mm), and flatter corneas (+0.09 mm longer corneal radius), although refractions were similar. In contrast, heavier persons tended to have more hyperopic refractions (+0.22 D for every 10 kg difference in weight, +0.56 D for every 10 kg/m(2) difference in BMI) but similar ocular dimensions. CONCLUSIONS Adult height is independently related to ocular dimensions, but does not appear to influence refraction. Thus, although taller persons are more likely to have longer globes, they also tend to have deeper anterior chambers, thinner lenses, and flatter corneas. Conversely, weight is independently related to refraction, although the exact biometric component responsible for this association is not apparent.