Infection by Oestrus ovis is common in Lacaune dairy ewes of Roquefort cheese area (Aveyron, France). It is believed by local breeders that there is a close relationship between nasal myiasis and the incidence of enzootic nasal tumour. In order to check these anecdotal reports, a serological survey was done on 658 breeding ewes before turn-out and 897 breeding and primiparous (hoggets) ewes at the end of the grazing season. By the time of sampling, it was clear whether the sheep were infected at the end of the winter or had been re-infected over summer. In April and September, 40.7 and 26.3%, respectively, were free of O. ovis infection, indicating that the autumn treatment was not completely effective and that O. ovis adult flies were circulating during the summer in many flocks. There were no differences in the incidence of adenocarcinoma between the groups indicating that there is no relationship between O. ovis infection and the presence of the cancer. Differences in milk production between the three groups were not statistically significant (Anova test P>0.05). In flocks where 1-5% of the ewes were infected or in non-infected flocks, ewes produced 3.6 and 8.56%, respectively, more milk than ewes from flocks where more than 5% of animals were infected. For primiparous ewes, the differences were of 8.5 and 12.24%.