INTRODUCTION Sites of complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) with a short mean cycle length (MCL) and sites with a high dominant frequency (DF) have been advocated as targets for ablation in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there are little data on the relationship between theses 2 markers. This study assessed the relationship between the DF and electrogram MCL after pulmonary vein (PV) isolation in patients with persistent AF. METHODS AND RESULTS A total of 44 patients with persistent AF were studied. Four-second bipolar electrograms were obtained with a multielectrode mapping catheter at regions throughout the left atrium after isolation of the pulmonary veins, with analysis of the MCL and DF at each site. The DF was defined as the largest frequency peak within a 2.5- to 16-Hz spectral profile generated with fast Fourier transformation of the electrogram. A total of 9,262 electrograms from the 44 patients were analyzed. The average MCL and DF post-PV isolation were 135 +/- 24 ms and 6.1 +/- 0.6 Hz, respectively. There was a statistically significant but weak correlation between the MCL and DF (r = 0.21, P < 0.001). Additionally, analysis of this relationship within each patient did not demonstrate a strong correlation (range of r values per patient =-0.18 to 0.47). CONCLUSIONS There is a poor correlation between the electrogram MCL and DF in patients with persistent AF. Ablation strategies targeting DF and those targeting CFAE are therefore unlikely to direct ablation toward similar left atrial sites. Comparative studies are necessary to determine the effectiveness of each strategy in guiding catheter ablation of persistent AF.