OBJECTIVE To investigate the expression and relationship of human alpha defensin-5 (HalphaD-5) and human beta defensin-2 (HbetaD-2) in human fimbriae tubes with adhesions and atresias. METHODS The tissue samples were collected from 30 human fimbriae tubes with adhesions and atresias, and 30 cases without adhesions and atresias. The expression of HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 in fimbriae tube tissue were measured by immunohistochemical SP methods. Image pro-plus 6.0 software was used to test the average IOD value of positive staining. Differences of HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 expressions were analyzed by independent-samples T test. The relationship between HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 was analyzed by Pearson correlation. RESULTS We found that HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 mainly expressed in the epithelial cells which face to lumen, mostly in the cytochylema. Both two groups expressed HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2, but the degrees were different. Compared with human fimbriae tubes without adhesions or atresias, the expressions of HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 increased significantly in adhesion cases (P(HalphaD--5) = 0.000, P(HbetaD--2) = 0.02). In the group without adhesion, there was a positive correlation between HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 (r = 0.404, P = 0.027), while in the adhesion group, there was no correlation between HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 (P = 0.089). CONCLUSION HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 may protect fimbriae tubes during the pathological process of microorganisms attack.