Homocysteine levels are associated with the results of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in type 2 diabetic patients
OBJECTIVE Although it is accepted that elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels occur in end-stage renal disease and type 2 diabetes, the changes with milder renal dysfunction (e.g., microalbuminuria) are less clearly established. This study explores the relationship among tHcy, creatinine clearance (Ccr), and albumin excretion rate (AER) in a population with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 260 patients with type 2 diabetes were screened in our outpatient clinic during 10 months. Fasting blood samples were collected, and AER was calculated from an overnight timed urine sample. Ccr was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault formula. RESULTS A total of 198 subjects (76%) had normoalbuminuria (<20 microg/min), 50 subjects (19%) had microalbuminuria (20-200 microg/min), and 12 subjects (5%) had macroalbuminuria (>or=200 microg/min). Those with microalbuminuria had higher levels of tHcy than those with normoalbuminuria (13.2 +/- 7.8 vs. 11.3 +/- 4.6 micromol/l, P < 0.05). Patients were then subdivided based on low Ccr (<80 ml x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2)) and normal Ccr (>or=80 x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2)). None of the patients with macroalbuminuria had normal Ccr. In those with normoalbuminuria, tHcy levels were higher than in those with low Ccr than in those with normal Ccr (12.0 +/- 4.6 vs. 10.0 +/- 4.4 micromol/l, P < 0.01). The same was found for those with microalbuminuria (low Ccr versus normal Ccr: 14.6 +/- 9.0 vs. 10.2 +/- 2.8 micromol/l, P < 0.02). For normal Ccr, tHcy was similar irrespective of AER (normoalbuminuria versus microalbuminuria: 10.0 +/- 4.4 vs. 10.2 +/- 2.8 micromol/l, NS). For low Ccr, tHcy was higher in those with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (14.6 +/- 9.0 vs. 12.0 +/- 4.6 micromol/l, P = 0.01). Using multivariate regression, Ccr, but neither AER nor the presence of albuminuria, was an independent predictor of tHcy. CONCLUSIONS These data strongly suggest that in patients with type 2 diabetes, the relationship between plasma tHcy and AER is largely due to associated changes in renal function, as defined by Ccr.