The regulation of epidermal melanogenesis via cAMP and/or PKC signaling pathways: insights for the development of hypopigmenting agents

  title={The regulation of epidermal melanogenesis via cAMP and/or PKC signaling pathways: insights for the development of hypopigmenting agents},
  author={Ai-Young Lee and Minsoo Noh},
  journal={Archives of Pharmacal Research},
Abnormal pigmentation, particularly hyperpigmentation, is major issue of concern for people with colored skin. Several hypopigmenting agents, which exert their action by inhibiting tyrosinase activity and/or transcription, have been used for treatment. However, results have been discouraging. To manage abnormal pigmentation properly, the mechanisms of melanogenesis should be understood. Endogenous and exogenous factors affect melanogenesis via intracellular machineries. cAMP and PKC are… 

Melanogenesis and Melasma Treatment

The mechanisms and the signalling pathways involved in skin pigmentation are reviewed and the alteration of melanogenesis that leads to melasma and results in hyperpigmentation is focused on.

Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of human skin melanogenesis and pigmentation

A bioinformatic interaction network gathering the multiple aspects of melanogenesis and skin Pigmentation as a resource to better understand and study skin pigmentation biology is developed.

Angiotensin II stimulates melanogenesis via the protein kinase C pathway.

The results suggest that PKC is required for Ang II-induced pigmentation in human melanocytes and that the mechanism involves the PKC pathway and MITF upregulation.

L-765,314 Suppresses Melanin Synthesis by Regulating Tyrosinase Activity

The data suggest that L-765,314 could be a potential therapeutic candidate for skin hyperpigmentary disorders and further discovery of selective inhibitors targeting PKC might be a promising strategy for the development of depigmenting agents to treat hyperpIGMENTary disorders.

Effect of ginseng and ginsenosides on melanogenesis and their mechanism of action

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  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of ginseng research
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Mechanisms and Therapeutic Prospects of Peptides in Skin Pigmentation

A novel platform to modulate skin pigmentation is the use of oligopeptides designed with affinity towards the active sites in molecules of the melanogenesis pathway, which can be designed to increase activity, prolong in vivo stability, promote penetration into cells and minimize side effects when compared to the molecules they mimic, or other drugs.

Inhibitory effects of p-alkylaminophenol on melanogenesis.

Sesamol decreases melanin biosynthesis in melanocyte cells and zebrafish: Possible involvement of MITF via the intracellular cAMP and p38/JNK signalling pathways

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Fraxinol Stimulates Melanogenesis in B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells through CREB/MITF Signaling

The results suggest that fraxinol enhances melanogenesis via a protein kinase A-mediated mechanism, which may be useful for developing potent melanogenesis stimulators.



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Recent progress in identifying signal transduction pathways that mediate melanogenesis is reviewed, which is the key physiologic defense against sun-induced injuries such as sunburn, photocarcinogenesis and photoaging.

Human melanogenesis is stimulated by diacylglycerol.

A diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl- glycerol (OAG) 25-100 microns strikingly increased the melanin content of cultured human melanocytes in a dose dependent manner without altering growth rate.

Cyclic AMP a key messenger in the regulation of skin pigmentation.

It appears that melanogenic gene expression is controlled by a complex network of regulation involving other transcription factors such as Brn2, TBX2, PAX3 and SOX10, which would finally allow a fine tuning of melanocyte differentiation leading to melanin synthesis.

Mechanisms of Ultraviolet Light‐Induced Pigmentation

Overall, ultraviolet-induced melanogenesis may be one part of a eukaryotic SOS response to damaging ultraviolet irradiation that has evolved over time to provide a protective tan in skin at risk of further injury from sun exposure.

Histamine induces melanogenesis and morphologic changes by protein kinase A activation via H2 receptors in human normal melanocytes.

It is shown here that histamine induces melanogenesis of human cultured melanocytes by protein kinase A activation via H2 receptors, and cAMP accumulation and subsequent protein kinases A activation plays a critical role in histamine-induced melanogenesis.

Withania somnifera extract attenuates stem cell factor-stimulated pigmentation in human epidermal equivalents through interruption of ERK phosphorylation within melanocytes

The sum of these findings indicates that WSE attenuates SCF-stimulated pigmentation by preferentially interrupting ERK phosphorylation within melanocytes and can serve as a therapeutic tool forSCF-associated hyperpigmentary disorders.

Modulation of murine melanocyte function in vitro by agouti signal protein

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Downregulated melanogenic paracrine cytokine linkages in hypopigmented palmoplantar skin

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Enzymatic control of pigmentation in mammals

  • V. HearingK. Tsukamoto
  • Biology
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 1991
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Bee venom stimulates human melanocyte proliferation, melanogenesis, dendricity and migration

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