The regulation of cognitive enhancement devices: extending the medical model

  title={The regulation of cognitive enhancement devices: extending the medical model},
  author={Hannah Maslen and Thomas Douglas and Roi Cohen Kadosh and Neil Levy and Julian Savulescu},
  journal={Journal of Law and the Biosciences},
  pages={68 - 93}
This article presents a model for regulating cognitive enhancement devices (CEDs). Recently, it has become very easy for individuals to purchase devices which directly modulate brain function. For example, transcranial direct current stimulators are increasingly being produced and marketed online as devices for cognitive enhancement. Despite posing risks in a similar way to medical devices, devices that do not make any therapeutic claims do not have to meet anything more than basic product… 
Regulating the Use of Cognitive Enhancement: an Analytic Framework
Recent developments in neuroscience have enabled technological advances to modulate cognitive functions of the brain. Despite ethical concerns about cognitive enhancement, both individuals and
Neurostimulation Devices for Cognitive Enhancement: Toward a Comprehensive Regulatory Framework
There is mounting evidence that non-invasive brain stimulation devices - transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) could be used for cognitive
Transcranial Electrical Stimulation for Human Enhancement and the Risk of Inequality: Prohibition or Compensation?
This paper analyses the ethical issues related to tDCS enhancement, which depend on its specific features: ease of use, immediate effect, non-detectability and great variability of effects.
Transcranial Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Cognitive Performance of Healthy Minors: A Complex Governance Challenge
It is argued for a responsible innovation approach, which encourages an adaptive attitude toward emerging knowledge and dynamic societal values, to deal with the identified issues regarding tES-based enhancement appropriately.
Who, If Not the FDA, Should Regulate Implantable Brain-Computer Interface Devices?
It is argued that BCI regulation should not be overseen by the FDA, because of the inadequacy of the FDA's safe-and-effective standard to judge devices spanning the spectrum of therapy to enhancement.
Prefrontal electrical stimulation in non-depressed reduces levels of reported negative affects from daily stressors
Advances in neuroscience and pharmacology have led to improvements in the cognitive performance of people with neurological disease and other forms of cognitive decline. These same methods may also
Hacking the Brain: Dimensions of Cognitive Enhancement
The dimensions of cognitive enhancement are disentangled, prominent examples of cognitive enhancers that differ across these dimensions are reviewed, and thereby provide a framework for both theoretical discussions and empirical research.
tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues
It is concluded that ethical discussion about memory enhancement via tDCS sometimes involves undue speculation, and closer attention to scientific and social facts would bring a more nuanced analysis.
A Taxonomy of Harms Inherent in Cognitive Enhancement
Advances in neuroscience and pharmacology have led to improvements in the cognitive performance of people with neurological disease and other forms of cognitive decline. These same methods may also


First , Do No Harm : Adverse Effects and the Need for Practice Standards in Neurofeedback
Adverse and iatrogenic effects associated with psychotherapy have been substantiated in research for more than 40 years. Controlled research also exists in the field of neurofeedback
The Need for Individualization in Neurofeedback: Heterogeneity in QEEG Patterns Associated with Diagnoses and Symptoms
  • D. Hammond
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback
  • 2010
QEEG provides reliable, non-invasive, objective, culture-free and relatively low cost evaluation of brain functioning, permitting individualization of treatment and added liability protection.
Neurofeedback Training Induces Changes in White and Gray Matter
This study constitutes the first empirical demonstration that NFT can lead to microstructural changes in white and gray matter, as measured in WM pathways implicated in sustained attention.
Biofeedback and Dance Performance: A Preliminary Investigation
This study randomly allocated ballroom and Latin dancers to three groups, one receiving neurofeedback, one HRV biofeedback and one no intervention, and compared alpha-theta neurofeedbacks with another form ofBiofeedback: heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedbacks.
Neurofeedback Overtraining and the Vulnerable Patient
ABSTRACT Neurofeedback overtraining in vulnerable patients can cause transient, site-specific functional decline that may be distressing to the patient and trainer. Susceptible patients can be
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: State of The Art
  • Brain Stimulation
  • 2008