The refinement of uncertainty/safety factors in risk assessment by the incorporation of data on toxicokinetic variability in humans.


The derivation of safe levels of exposure in humans for compounds that are assumed to cause threshold toxicity has relied on the application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor to a measure for the threshold, such as the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or the benchmark dose (BMD). This 100-fold safety factor consists of the product of two 10-fold… (More)


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