The recent evolution of pentachlorophenol (PCP)-4-monooxygenase (PcpB) and associated pathways for bacterial degradation of PCP

  title={The recent evolution of pentachlorophenol (PCP)-4-monooxygenase (PcpB) and associated pathways for bacterial degradation of PCP},
  author={Ronald L. Crawford and Carina M. Jung and Janice L. Strap},
Man-made polychlorinated phenols such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) have been used extensively since the 1920s as preservatives to prevent fungal attack on wood. During this time, they have become serious environmental contaminants. Despite the recent introduction of PCP in the environment on an evolutionary time scale, PCP-degrading bacteria are present in soils worldwide. The initial enzyme in the PCP catabolic pathway of numerous sphingomonads, PCP-4-monooxygenase (PcpB), catalyzes the para… 
Enhanced Remediation of Pentachlorophenol (PCP)-Contaminated Groundwater by Bioaugmentation with Known PCP-Degrading Bacteria
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to test whether bioaugmentation with known pentachlorophenol (PCP)-degrading bacteria (Sphingobium chlorophenolicum and Burkholderia cepacia) could enhance
A comprehensive overview of bacteria and fungi used for pentachlorophenol biodegradation
This review focuses on PCP degradation by various aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms with emphases on the biological and chemical aspects and will analyze intermediate products, processes and enzymes involved in the degradation of PCP in different environmental conditions and at various PCP concentrations.
Aerobic Degradation of Chloroaromatics
The principles of the microbial aerobic degradation of chloroaromatic compounds in aerobic bacteria are presented and the broad variety of mechanisms resulting in dechlorination that occur in these peripheral or central sequences is specifically discussed.
Fungi in Pentachlorophenol Adsorption and Degradation:Novel Bioremediation and Biotechnological Tools
The results indicate that B. nivea and S. brumptii have an interesting potential for bioremediation and biocontrol strategy and the Infrared Spectroscopy results showed that amides, alkanes, carboxylates, hydroxyl groups may possibly be important to the PCP adsorption for pellets of A. discolor.
Analysis of Two Gene Clusters Involved in the Degradation of 4-Fluorophenol by Arthrobacter sp. Strain IF1
The results indicate that strain IF1 transforms 4-FP to hydroquinone by a two-component monooxygenase system of which one component provides reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide at the expense of NADH and the other catalyzes para-hydroxylation of 4- FP and other 4-substituted phenols.
Expression of Pentachlorophenol-Degradative Genes of Sphingobium chlorophenolica ATCC39723 in Escherichia coli
Remarkable achievement of high expressions of Sphingobium PCP-degradative genes (pcpA, pcpB, pCPC and pcpD) has been revealed in E.coli.
Molecular characteristics of xenobiotic-degrading sphingomonads
  • A. Stolz
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • 2009
Comparative analyses demonstrate that sphingomonads generally use similar degradative pathways as other groups of microorganisms but deviate from competing microorganisms by the existence of multiple hydroxylating oxygenases and the conservation of specific gene clusters.
Degradation of 4-fluorophenol by Arthrobacter sp. strain IF1
Results indicate that the biodegradation of 4-FP starts with a 4- FP monooxygenase reaction that yields benzoquinone, which is reduced to hydroquinone and further metabolized via the β-ketoadipic acid pathway.


Organization and Regulation of Pentachlorophenol-Degrading Genes in Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 39723
  • M. Cai, L. Xun
  • Engineering, Biology
    Journal of bacteriology
  • 2002
The organization and regulation of the genes involved in PCP degradation to 3-oxoadipate were documented and the organization of the pcp genes is unusual because the four PCP-degrading genes were found to be located at four discrete locations.
Verification of the role of PCP 4-monooxygenase in chlorine elimination from pentachlorophenol by Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 39723.
The bacterial enzyme PCP 4-monooxygenase from Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 39723 catalyzes the oxygenolytic removal of the first chlorine from pentachlorophenol. PCP 4-monooxygenase is an FAD
Molecular analysis of pentachlorophenol degradation
An overview of the degradation pathway of PCP to 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone by Flavobacterium is provided and the successful transformation and site specific mutagenesis ofFlavobacterial, as well as the discovery of two newpcp alleles is presented.
Catabolism of pentachlorophenol by a Flavobacterium sp.
Purification of a Flavobacterium pentachlorophenol-induced periplasmic protein (PcpA) and nucleotide sequence of the corresponding gene (pcpA)
A pentachlorophenol (PCP)-induced periplasmic protein (PcpA) with a molecular weight of 30,000 has been identified and purified from Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 39723. Results suggest that PcpA
Evidence for Natural Horizontal Transfer of the pcpB Gene in the Evolution of Polychlorophenol-Degrading Sphingomonads
A comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA and pcpB gene trees suggested that a recent horizontal transfer of the pCPB gene was involved in the evolution of the catabolic pathway in the Kärkölä sphingomonads.
Phylogeny of Sphingomonas species that degrade pentachlorophenol
Molecular analyses revealed that the PCP degradation pathway in these four strains was rather conserved, leading to a phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA, which revealed a much closer phylogenetic relationship between these organisms than traditional classification indicated.
A Previously Unrecognized Step in Pentachlorophenol Degradation in Sphingobium chlorophenolicum Is Catalyzed by Tetrachlorobenzoquinone Reductase (PcpD)
It is proposed and verified experimentally that PcpD is a tetrachlorobenzoquinone reductase that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of tetrACHlorobesquinone to tetracheslorohydroquinone, a protein that had previously been suggested to be a PCP hydroxylase reduct enzyme.
Degradation of chlorinated phenols by a pentachlorophenol-degrading bacterium
A pentachlorophenol (PCP)-degrading Flavobacterium sp. was tested for its ability to dechlorinate other chlorinated phenols by using resting cells that had been grown in the presence or absence of