The rate of small impacts on Earth

  title={The rate of small impacts on Earth},
  author={Philip A. Bland and N. Artemieva},
  journal={Meteoritics \& Planetary Science},
  • P. BlandN. Artemieva
  • Published 1 April 2006
  • Geology, Environmental Science, Physics
  • Meteoritics & Planetary Science
Abstract— Asteroids tens to hundreds of meters in diameter constitute the most immediate impact hazard to human populations, yet the rate at which they arrive at Earth's surface is poorly known. Astronomic observations are still incomplete in this size range; impactors are subjected to disruption in Earth's atmosphere, and unlike the Moon, small craters on Earth are rapidly eroded. In this paper, we first model the atmospheric behavior of iron and stony bodies over the mass range 1–1012 kg… 

On the capture of small stony asteroids into the Earth's orbit by atmospheric grazing

An Earth-grazing asteroid can be captured into a gravitational bound orbit around the Earth during its transitory atmospheric journey. Otherwise, it will either escape back to space or plunge to

Small Near-Earth Asteroids as a Source of Meteorites

Small asteroids intersecting Earth's orbit can deliver extraterrestrial rocks to the Earth, called meteorites. This process is accompanied by a luminous phenomena in the atmosphere, called bolides or

Meteoroid Fragmentation in the Martian Atmosphere and the Formation of Crater Clusters

The current rate of small impacts on Mars is informed by more than one thousand impact sites formed in the last 20 years, detected in images of the martian surface. More than half of these impacts

Evidence for a large Paleozoic Impact Crater Strewn Field in the Rocky Mountains

This report reports on a newly discovered impact crater strewn field, about 280 Myr old, in tilted strata of the Rocky Mountains near Douglas, Wyoming, which is the oldest and among the largest of impact crater Strewn fields discovered to date, extending for a minimum of 7.5 km along a SE-NW trajectory.

Estimates of yet-to-find impact crater population on Earth

  • S. Stewart
  • Geology
    Journal of the Geological Society
  • 2011
Abstract: One hundred and seventy-six craters on Earth are currently accepted as resulting from bolide impact; this list is growing at a rate of approximately two craters per year because of new


The strike of a cosmic body into a marine environment differs in several respects from impact on land. Oceans cover approximately 70% of the Earth's surface, implying not only that oceanic impact is

The Canyon Diablo impact event: Projectile motion through the atmosphere

Abstract— Meteor Crater is one of the first impact structures systematically studied on Earth. Its location in arid northern Arizona has been ideal for the preservation of the structure and the

Reconstruction of the Morasko meteoroid impact—Insight from numerical modeling

The Morasko strewn field located near Poznań, Poland comprises seven impact craters with diameters ranging from 20 to 90 m, all of which were formed in glacial sediments around 5000 yr ago. Numerous

The impact rate on Earth

  • P. Bland
  • Geology, Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2005
Estimates of the size-frequency distribution for terrestrial impactors, from meteorite-sized objects up to kilometre-sized asteroids, for both the upper atmosphere and the Earth's surface allow us to constrain the threat posed by impacts to human populations.



Efficient disruption of small asteroids by Earth's atmosphere

It is shown that the separated-fragments model predicts the total atmospheric disruption of much larger stony bodies than previously thought, and it is estimated that bodies >220 m in diameter will impact every 170,000 years.

The flux of small near-Earth objects colliding with the Earth

Satellite records of bolide detonations in the atmosphere over the past 8.5 years are reported and it is found that the flux of objects in the 1–10-m size range has the same power-law distribution as bodies with diameters >50 m.

A reduced estimate of the number of kilometre-sized near-Earth asteroids

An analysis of the survey for near-Earth asteroids that uses improved detection technologies finds that the total number of asteroids with diameters > 1 km is about half the earlier estimates.

Crater fields on Venus, Earth and Mars.

Introduction: Meteoroids that are disrupted and dispersed in the atmosphere may give rise to crater fields at the surface. For lower mass objects fragmentation may produce a strewn field of meteorite

Asteroid Impact Tsunami: A Probabilistic Hazard Assessment

Abstract We investigate the generation, propagation, and probabilistic hazard of tsunami spawned by oceanic asteroid impacts. The process first links the depth and diameter of parabolic impact

Long-term variations in the impact cratering rate on Earth

  • E. Shoemaker
  • Geology, Physics
    Geological Society, London, Special Publications
  • 1998
Extended abstract Lunar and terrestrial impact craters, the terrestrial stratigraphic record of impact events, and astronomical observations of Earth-crossing asteroids and comets provide the primary


Two classes of solid bodies large enough to be detected by telescopes occur in orbits that overlap that of the Earth. These bodies are the Earth-crossing asteroids and comet nuclei. Although their

The Near-Earth Asteroid Size–Frequency Distribution: A Snapshot of the Lunar Impactor Size–Frequency Distribution

Abstract It is shown that the size–frequency distribution (SFD) of a time-averaged projectile population derived from the lunar crater SFD of Neukum and Ivanov (in Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids

The size distribution of the earth-approaching asteroids

The discovery circumstances of the first asteroids ever observed outside the earth's atmosphere but within the neighborhood of the earth-moon system are described. Four natural objects with diameters