To estimate the rate of positive surgical margin (SM) in radical retropubic prostatectomy and its role in emergence of prostatic cancer (PC) recurrence, we operated 216 PC patients aged 41 to 73 years. Most of the patients had clinical stages T2a,b (41.8%) or T3a (35.6%). Stages T1 and T3b were in 18.7 and 3.9% patients, respectively.A positive SM was registered in 68 of 193 patients (35.2%). Thirty six (52.9%) patients had a focal (solitary or short) SM, thirty two (47.1%) had a long SM. The recurrence occurred in 31 (16.1%) patients who, as a rule, had long SM. Recurrence-free one-year survival in 104 patients who had no SM reached 82%, in 34 patients with focal SM (group 2) it was 83%. Such three-year survival in group 1 and 2 was 75 and 73.6%, respectively. Thus, recurrence-free survival in organ-limited process and short SM differed little within 3 years. The period between 12 and 24 months of follow-up is most risky in relation to detection of recurrence in short SM. The group of patients with long SM had maximal number of recurrences.