The radiation of the Cape flora, southern Africa

  title={The radiation of the Cape flora, southern Africa},
  author={Hans Peter Linder},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  • H. Linder
  • Published 1 November 2003
  • Environmental Science
  • Biological Reviews
The flora of the south‐western tip of southern Africa, the Cape flora, with some 9000 species in an area of 90 000 km2 is much more speciose than can be expected from its area or latitude, and is comparable to that expected from the most diverse equatorial areas. The endemism of almost 70%, on the other hand, is comparable to that found on islands. This high endemism is accounted for by the ecological and geographical isolation of the Cape Floristic Region, but explanations for the high species… 
Evolutionary Diversity Patterns in the Cape Flora of South Africa
The Greater Cape Floristic Region of South Africa is a relatively small area found in the south-western corner of the African continent. It is characterised by a Mediterranean-type climate and
Causes of plant diversification in the Cape biodiversity hotspot of South Africa.
It is concluded that the combination of complex environmental conditions together with relative climatic stability promoted high speciation and/or low extinction rates as the most likely scenario leading to present-day patterns of hyperdiversity in the Cape.
The evolution of African plant diversity
  • H. Linder
  • Environmental Science
    Front. Ecol. Evol.
  • 2014
It is argued that six floras, with distinct geographical centres, different extra-African affinities, ages of radiation and radiation rates, can be delimited: the Austro-temperate, Tropic-alpine, Lowland forest,tropic-montane, Savanna and Arid Floras.
Evolution of the species-rich Cape flora.
  • H. Linder, C. Hardy
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2004
A phylogenetic analysis of an almost complete species sample of the largest clade of Restionaceae, the third largest Cape clade, indicates that the radiation of the Restion Families started between 20 and 42 Myr ago, and since then there were no, or at most gradual, changes in the speciation rate in this clade.
The Evolution of Regional Species Richness: The History of the Southern African Flora
It is suggested that several of the most species-rich regions may harbor several complex radiations, which accumulate diversifying lineages over a long time, spawn daughter radiations on other continents, and become powerhouses of global-biodiversity generation.
The Cape element in the Afrotemperate flora: from Cape to Cairo?
This work reconstructs the historical biogeography of the four lineages of Disa, Irideae p.p., the Pentaschistis clade and Restionaceae, and finds that tropical taxa are nested within a predominantly Cape clade.
The composition, geography, biology and assembly of the coastal flora of the Cape Floristic Region
It is suggested that, over and above the strong pH gradient that exists on calcareous substrata, soil depth and texture may act as important edaphic filters to incorporating lineages from floras on juxtaposed substrata in the CFR.
Patterns of plant speciation in the Cape floristic region.
Mediterranean Biomes: Evolution of Their Vegetation, Floras, and Climate
Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) are located today in southwestern Australia, the Cape Region of South Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, California, and central Chile. These MTEs possess the
This work reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among species in the genus Protea, which has its center of species richness and endemism in the Cape, but also extends through tropical Africa as far as Eritrea and Angola.


Floristic diversity in the Cape Flora of South Africa
  • P. Goldblatt
  • Environmental Science
    Biodiversity & Conservation
  • 2004
Comprising a land area of ca 90000 km2, less than 4% of the total land area for the Southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Province is one of the world's richest areas in terms of
Rapid and recent origin of species richness in the Cape flora of South Africa
The results indicate that diversification began approximately 7–8 Myr ago, coincident with extensive aridification caused by changes in ocean currents, and shows that large continental bursts of speciation can occur rapidly over timescales comparable to those previously associated with oceanic island radiations.
The historical phytogeography of the Disinae (Orchidaceae)
  • H. Linder
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1983
The Disinae (Orchidaceae) are widespread in tropical montane Africa and the Cape temperate region, therefore showing a distribution range typical of a temperate herb in Africa, corroborated by recent studies on Cupressaceae, Pooidae and Compositae.
Geographical distribution of present-day Cape taxa and their phytogeographical significance
The Cape Flora, one of the six floral kingdoms recognized by phytogeographers, is remarkable for its species richness and high degree of endemism, but no overall statistics are as yet available.
Phytogeography of Pelargonium
The vast majority of the approximately 2(H) species of Pelargonium oeeurs in Africa. About SO per cent of the species are endemic to the winter rainfall region of the Cape Province, and the centre of
Setting Conservation Priorities: The Importance of Endemism and Phylogeny in the Southern African Orchid Genus Herschelia
The southern and south-central African terrestrial orchid genus Herschelia contains several rare and endangered species. The distribution patterns of the species were assessed and classified into the
Plant species diversity in cape fynbos: Gamma and delta diversity
The results support the conventional view that fynbos plant diversity is partly a consequence of the peculiar geography of the zone, and of palaeo-climatic change, which have favoured geographic speciation.
Cape elements on high-altitude corridors and edaphic islands.
The heathy, sclerophyllous vegetation type known locally in South Africa as 'fynbos' is not restricted to the Cape Floral Kingdom (CFK), but occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar and the
The Upper Quaternary of the Cape Flats Area (Cape Province, South Africa)
Palynological data and other evidence suggest that the Upper Quaternary of the Cape Flats area can be subdivided chronostratigraphically into units that may be correlated with those of the Northern
Flora and Vegetation
The flora of the Sahel is rather poor, i.e. approximately 1500 species of flowering plants for an area of 3 million km2. The flora is typically paleotropical. The richest families are: Poaceae,