The race to prevent the extinction of South Asian vultures

@article{Pain2008TheRT,
  title={The race to prevent the extinction of South Asian vultures},
  author={Deborah J. Pain and Christopher G. R. Bowden and Andrew A. Cunningham and Richard J. Cuthbert and Devojit Das and Martin Gilbert and Ram D. Jakati and Yadvendradev V. Jhala and Aleem Ahmed Khan and Vinny Naidoo and J. Lindsay Oaks and Jemima Parry-Jones and Vibhu M. Prakash and Asad Rafi Rahmani and Sachin P. Ranade and Hem Sagar Baral and Kalu Ram Senacha and Suntharalingam Saravanan and Nita Shah and Gerry E. Swan and Devendra Swarup and Mark A. Taggart and Richard T. Watson and Munir Z. Virani and Kerri. Wolter and Rhys. E. Green},
  journal={Bird Conservation International},
  year={2008},
  volume={18},
  pages={S30 - S48}
}
Abstract Gyps vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent collapsed in the 1990s and continue to decline. Repeated population surveys showed that the rate of decline was so rapid that elevated mortality of adult birds must be a key demographic mechanism. Post mortem examination showed that the majority of dead vultures had visceral gout, due to kidney damage. The realisation that diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug potentially nephrotoxic to birds, had become a widely used… 

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TLDR
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TLDR
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Lead ingestion as a potential contributing factor to the decline in vulture populations in southern Africa

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TLDR
The tissues of cattle treated with diclofenac are a hazard to wild vultures that feed on an animal that dies within a few days after treatment, and withdrawal of the drug from veterinary use on animals whose carcasses may become available to scavenging vulture is recommended.

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TLDR
It is concluded that meloxicam is of low toxicity toGyps vultures and that its use in place of diclofenac would reduce vulture mortality substantially in the Indian subcontinent.

Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian subcontinent

TLDR
It is recommended that urgent action is taken in the range states of the three currently threatened vulture species to prevent the exposure of vultures to livestock carcasses contaminated with diclofenac.

Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent

TLDR
It is shown that a high proportion of Gyps bengalensis and G. indicus found dead or dying in a much larger area of India and Nepal also have residues of diclofenac and visceral gout, a post–mortem finding that is strongly associated with dic-of-enac contamination in both species, suggesting veterinary use of dIClofy is likely to have been the major cause of the rapid vulture population declines across the subcontinent.

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TLDR
Results are provided that directly correlate residues of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac with renal failure and renal failure in the Oriental white-backed vulture (OWBV) and it is proposed that residues of veterinary diclotenac are responsible for the OWBV decline.

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TLDR
Investigation of populations of two species of griffon vulture in India shows infectious disease to be the most tenable of these declines, and examines hypotheses for the cause of the declines.

Rapid population declines of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) and red‐headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) in India

TLDR
Analysis of repeated surveys in and near protected areas widely spread across India shows that populations of two other vulture species, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus and red-headed vulture Sarcogyps calvus, have also declined markedly and rapidly, but probably with a later onset than Gyps vultures in the same region.

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TLDR
A study carried out in a densely forested and sparsely populated region in Central India found an intracellular malarial parasite was identified from the tissues of both live and dead White-backed vultures and indicated a 95―96% similarity with the mitochondrial sequence of Plas modium falciparum and other Plasmodium species.

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TLDR
Phylogenetic analyses and conservative estimates suggest the diversification of Gyps taxa to be within the past 6 million years, and molecular and morphological data provide strong support for considering the "Long-billed" Vulture to be comprised of two species.
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