Alcohol dehydrogenase of acetic acid bacteria: structure, mode of action, and applications in biotechnology
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) of acetic acid bacteria functions as the primary dehydrogenase of the ethanol oxidase respiratory chain, where it donates electrons to ubiquinone. In addition to the reduction of ubiquinone, ADHs of Gluconobacter suboxydans and Acetobacter aceti were shown to have a novel function in the oxidation of ubiquinol. The oxidation activity of ubiquinol was detected as an ubiquinol:ferricyanide oxidoreductase activity, which can be monitored by selected wavelength pairs at 273 and 298 nm with a dual-wavelength spectrophotometer. The ubiquinol oxidation activity of G. suboxydans ADH was shown to be two times higher in 'inactive ADH', whose ubiquinone reductase activity is 10 times lower, than with normal 'active' ADH. No activity could be detected in the isolated subunit II or subunit I/III complex, but activity was detectable in the reconstituted ADH complex. Inactive and active ADHs exhibited a 2-3-fold difference in their affinity to ubiquinol despite having the same affinity to ubiquinone. Furthermore, the ubiquinol oxidation site in ADH could be distinguished from the ubiquinone reduction site by differences in their sensitivity to ubiquinone-related inhibitors and by their substrate specificity with several ubiquinone analogues. Thus, the results strongly suggest that the reactions occur at different sites. Furthermore, in situ reconstitution experiments showed that ADH is able to accept electrons from ubiquinol present in Escherichia coli membranes, suggesting the ubiquinol oxidation activity of ADH has a physiological function. Thus, ADH of acetic acid bacteria, which has ubiquinone reduction activity, was shown to have a novel ubiquinol oxidation activity, of which the physiological function in the respiratory chain of the organism is also discussed.