The quest for the origin of the elements.

  title={The quest for the origin of the elements.},
  author={William A. Fowler},
  volume={226 4677},
  • W. Fowler
  • Published 1 March 1984
  • Physics
  • Science
All life on Earth depends on the energy in sunlight, which comes initially from the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium deep in the solar interior. But the sun did not produce the chemical elements which are found in the earth and in our bodies. The first two elements and their stable isotopes, hydrogen and helium, emerged from the first few minutes of the early high-temperature, high-density stage of the expanding Universe, the so-called big bang. 
Neutron capture origin for the heavy elements
  • K. Takahashi
  • Physics
    Applications of Nuclear Techniques: Neutrons and their Applications
  • 1995
Most naturally occurring elements were evidently synthesized in the interiors of stars, and, in particular, most of the heavy ones via neutron capture processes. We present here an introductory
The Early Sun : Precursor to Helium and Neon Isotopes in the Earth
The sources and emissions of mantle gases from the Earth containing high He/He ratios, as compared to the atmospheric value, while the Ne/Ne ratios are often similar to their atmospheric ratios, has
The Sun is a plasma diffuser that sorts atoms by mass
The Sun is a plasma diffuser that selectively moves light elements like H and He and the lighter isotopes of each element to its surface. The Sun formed on the collapsed core of a supernova (SN) and
Origin of Elements in the Solar System 589 Origin of Elements in the Solar System
The solar system is chemically and isotopically heterogeneous. The earth contains only 0.0003% of the mass of the solar system, but the abundance pattern of non-radiogenic isotopes for each
Reaction data in helium and carbon burning
Nuclear fusion reactions play a key role in the understanding of energy production, nucleosynthesis of the elements in stars and the evolution of massive stars. Therefore, the direct determination of
LUNA: a laboratory for underground nuclear astrophysics
It is in the nature of astrophysics that many of the processes and objects one tries to understand are physically inaccessible. Thus, it is important that those aspects that can be studied in the
Nuclear Reaction Rates — from Laboratory Experiments and in the Stellar Plasma
The two goals in nuclear astrophysics are the attempts to understand the energy generation of stars at all stages of stellar evolution and to explain the abundancies of the elements and their
Key reactions in stellar burning: LUNA and other new approaches
Introduction Investigations during the last 60 years have shown [l-31 that we are connected with distant space and time not only by our imaginations but also through a common cosmic heritage: the


Synthesis of the Elements in Stars
Man inhabits a universe composed of a great variety of elements and their isotopes. In Table I,1 a count of the stable and radioactive elements and isotopes is listed. Ninety elements are found
  • W. Fowler
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1964
It is my privilege to begin the consideration of the history of the universe during this first scientific session of the Academy Centennial with a discussion of the origin of the elements, the modern expression of one of the most ancient problems in science.
Xenon from the chondritic meteorite Richardton was found to be heavily enriched in Xe/sup 129/. This isotope almost centainly was formed from the decay of I/sup 129/, extinct at present as a natural
It was once thought that the stars and the interstellar matter had a uniform chemical composition except for some of the lighter elements, which were destroyed by thermonuclear reactions in stellar
In a recent Letter on a determination of the age of the elements, Reynolds[1] reported the important discovery of isotopically anomalous xenon in the stony meteorite Richarton. The isotopes which
Nuclear Reactions in the Stars. I. Proton-Proton Chain
The rates are calculated for the main reactions making up the "proton-proton chain," whose net effect is the conversion of four hydrogen atoms into one helium atom. These calculations are carried out
Synthesis of Al-26 in explosive hydrogen burning
The possibility of Al-26 synthesis during the explosive processing of hydrogen-rich material in the outer layers of a supernova or in nova envelopes is investigated. It is found that in the peak
Origin of Actinium and Age of the Earth
It seems highly probable that the isotope of mass 207 is mainly due to actinium lead, and that the act inium series has its origin in an isotopes of uranium—a suggestion independently put forward by several investigators on other evidence.
Supernovae and the origin of the solar system
This review concentrates on recent ideas involving a relationship between the early solar system and supernova explosions. It summarizes briefly the data that has helped inspire those ideas. Because
Hanford Engineering and Development Laboratory internal report HEDI,TME-7680 (1976, unpublished)
  • 1976