The quest for blood pressure reference values in children.

@article{Chiolero2014TheQF,
  title={The quest for blood pressure reference values in children.},
  author={Arnaud Chiolero},
  journal={Journal of hypertension},
  year={2014},
  volume={32 3},
  pages={
          477-9
        }
}
  • A. Chiolero
  • Published 1 March 2014
  • Medicine
  • Journal of hypertension
Do we need country-specific blood pressure reference values for children? This question will sound weird for clinicians caring for adult hypertensive patients or researchers working in the domain of adult hypertension. Indeed, there are no country-specific reference values for adults. This contrasts 

Controversy about hypertension screening in children: a public health perspective.

TLDR
Observations support the view that screening and treatment of hypertension should begin from childhood, and why there are doubts about its potential benefits and harms and propose avenues to solve the controversy.

Oscillometric casual blood pressure normative standards for Swedish children using ABPM to exclude casual hypertension.

TLDR
The authors' normative standard for CBP can be used for blood pressure screening and control programs in Swedish children and the use of ABPM should be considered to confirm the diagnosis of casual hypertension.

Can auscultatory blood pressure normative values be used for evaluation of oscillometric blood pressure in children?

TLDR
A retrospective analysis of oscillometric office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring in 229 children revealed that auscultatory and oscillometric normative data are interchangeable for SBP but not for DBP.

Casual blood pressure among Tanzanian undergraduate students: need for re-defining population specific operational threshold between normotension and hypertension

TLDR
The observed upper limits of the distribution of normal BP for the age of the participants are higher than the World Health Organization recommended values.

Oscillometric blood pressure in Indian school children: Simplified percentile tables and charts

TLDR
Simplified reference tables and charts, formulae for SBP and DBP, and simple convenient thresholds may be useful for rapid screening of hypertension using oscillometric method in children.

Establishing International Blood Pressure References Among Nonoverweight Children and Adolescents Aged 6 to 17 Years

TLDR
These international BP references will be a useful tool for international comparison of the prevalence of elevated BP in children and adolescents and may help to identify hypertensive youths in diverse populations.

Screening for cardiovascular disease risk factors beginning in childhood

TLDR
It is suggested that there is no compelling evidence to recommend universal screening for elevated blood pressure, abnormal blood lipids, abnormalBlood glucose, or smoking in children and adolescents and efforts should rather focus on the primordial prevention of CVD risk factors.

Effects of Corn Silk (Zea mays Linn) Extract on Intraocular Pressure and Blood Pressure in Normotensive Young Adults in Abia State University, Nigeria

TLDR
Corn silk aqueous extract reduces IOP and BP although its effect on IOP is not sustained thus it can be used as supplement in the management of ocular hypertension and hypertension especially due to the fact that it being a waste material in many kitchens is relatively inexpensive and easy to access.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES

Management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents: recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension.

TLDR
These guidelines represent a consensus among specialists involved in the detection and control of high blood pressure in children and adolescents and represent best clinical wisdom upon which physicians, nurses and families should base their decisions.

Determination of blood pressure percentiles in normal-weight children: some methodological issues.

TLDR
The authors develop norms for childhood blood pressure among normal-weight children as a function of age, sex, and height as well as three types of models for pediatric blood pressure data, including polynomial regression, restricted cubic splines, and quantile regression.

Screening for elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents: a critical appraisal.

TLDR
Evidence of the benefits and harm of BP screening in children is not clear, and studies are needed to assess the absolute risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with elevated BP in childhood, to evaluate how to simplify the identification of elevated BP, and to compare universal and targeted screening strategies.

Blood pressure distribution in Indian children

TLDR
Children from study population have higher diastolic pressures for both sexes than international standard across all age groups, and girls showed higher values than the international standard while for boys, the difference appears to be minimal.

Distribution of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in children: normalized reference values and role of body dimensions

TLDR
The use of LMS reference tables permits calculation of appropriate SDS values for ABPM in children, where systolic 24-h BP is independently correlated with age, relative height and obesity, diastolic values are almost independent of age and relative height, and weakly associated with relative obesity.

The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents.

TLDR
This paper focuses on the treatment of teenagers with high blood pressure who have had previous history of high pressure problems and the literature on how to treat these problems is lacking.

Oscillometric 24-h ambulatory blood pressure reference values in Hong Kong Chinese children and adolescents

TLDR
The study provides ambulatory BP standards for Chinese children, with sex-related age-specific and height-specific percentiles, with overall and nonoverweight reference standards generally higher than corresponding German references.

Has Blood Pressure Increased in Children in Response to the Obesity Epidemic?

TLDR
The epidemiologic evidence available on the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in children and trends over time is reviewed, and there is little direct evidence that blood pressure has increased during the past few decades despite the concomitant epidemic of pediatric overweight.

Prevalence of hypertension in schoolchildren based on repeated measurements and association with overweight

TLDR
The proportion of children with elevated BP based on one visit was five times higher than based on three measurements taken at few-week intervals, which re-emphasize the need for prevention and control of overweight in children to curb the global hypertension burden.

Blood Pressure Percentiles by Age and Height From Nonoverweight Children and Adolescents in Germany

TLDR
Compared with current US references, the proposed German BP reference values are not influenced by the prevalence of overweight children in the reference population, they are based on a validated oscillometric device, and they take advantage of improved statistical methods.