The purine path to chemotherapy

  title={The purine path to chemotherapy},
  author={Gertrude Bell Elion},
  journal={In Vitro Cellular \& Developmental Biology},
  • G. Elion
  • Published 1 April 1989
  • Medicine
  • In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology
Research on antimetabolites of nucleic acid purines led to drugs for the treatment of acute leukemia (6-mercaptopurine and thioguanine), gout and hyperuricemia (allopurinol), and herpesvirus infections (acyclovir), and for the prevention of organ transplant rejection (azathioprine). 
Biochemical approach to new medications.
  • G. Hitchings
  • Medicine, Biology
    International journal of tissue reactions
  • 1992
Several of the author's diaminopurines proved to be selective antifolates in combatting pathogenic bacteria when combined with sulfanilamide, a useful drug combination already estimated to have saved a million lives.
Azathioprine in dermatology.
Azathioprine is a synthetic purine analog derived from 6-mercaptopurine that has a cytotoxic and immunosuppressive mechanism of action and its active metabolites act by disrupting the function of endogenous purines.
Thiopurines in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: New Findings and Perspectives
A clinical review critically summarises the available literature, as assessed by several experts in the field of thiopurine treatment and research in inflammatory bowel disease, and provides a state-of-the-art overview of thioguanine treatment ininflammatory bowel disease.
Purine nucleoside analogs in the therapy of cancer and neuroinflammation
This work reviews new nucleoside analogs that are currently in preclinical or clinical development as anticancer agents and highlights the potential for implementation of these drugs in other pathological conditions, particularly in neuroinflammation.
Allopurinol use during pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia maintenance therapy safely corrects skewed 6‐mercaptopurine metabolism, improving inadequate myelosuppression and reducing gastrointestinal toxicity
Inadequate myelosuppression during maintenance therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is associated with an increased risk of relapse, and Allopurinol can modify 6MP metabolism to favor 6TGN production and reduce 6MMP.
The importance of different immunosuppressive regimens in the development of posttransplant diabetes mellitus
The importance of different immunosuppressive regimens in the development of posttransplant diabetes mellitus is studied.
Azathioprine-Induced Severe Bone Marrow Suppression
This paper aims to provide a history of the publication of wills and testamentary practices in the field of wills, as well as some general principles and specific cases, to help lawyers and judges better understand these practices.
Impaired Transport as a Mechanism of Resistance to Thiopurines in Human T-Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells
It is concluded that defected initial transport of thiopurines by cells may very well explain their resistance to these drugs.
Antiviral Drugs Against Alphaherpesvirus.
  • K. Shiraki
  • Medicine, Biology
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2018
The helicase-primase inhibitors pritelivir and amenamevir have novel mechanisms of action, drug resistance properties, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and clinical efficacy for treating genital herpes and will be the beginning of a new era of anti-herpes therapy.


The purine path to chemotherapy
Antimetabolites of purine metabolism have found a use as anti-leukaemic, antiprotozoal and antiviral drugs, in immunosuppression and transplantation, and in gout and hyperuricemia. Their mechanisms
Suppression of the Immune Response by Drugs in Combination
Combinations of purine with pyrimidine analogs were tested for their effects on formation in mice of hemagglutinins to red blood cells and 5-Bromodeoxyuridine is notable for the magnitude of the ratio of maximum tolerated dose to minimum effective dose.
Allopurinol in the treatment of gout.
Allopurinol, 4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d) pyrimidine (4-HPP),*recently introduced as a new type of agent useful in the treatment of gout, developed from studies undertaken to increase the concentration of this agent in the blood of patients suffering from gout.
Antileishmanial Effect of Allopurinol
Allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) has been shown to inhibit the growth of Leishmania braziliensis in vitro at concentrations which are attainable in human tissues and body fluids. This
Antipurines and Purine Metabolism
The study of the involvement of purines in lymphocyte function has been highlighted by two dramatic and unrelated discoveries and led to many studies involving purine metabolism in lymphocytes as well as the modulation of lymphocytes function by purines.
Antitrypanosomal effect of allopurinol: conversion in vivo to aminopyrazolopyrimidine nucleotides by Trypanosoma curzi.
A transformation of a widely used innocuous agent, allopurinol, into a toxic adenine analog appears to account for the antiprotozoan effect of allopirinol.
Allopurinol in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.
9-(2-Hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine activity against viruses of the herpes group
Of a series of nucleoside analogues synthesized, 9-(2-hydroxy-ethoxymethyl)guanine was found to have marked antiviral activity in animal models of herpes virus infections, associated with very low
Drug-induced Immunological Tolerance
The purpose of this communication is to describe the apparent induction of immunological tolerance in adult rabbits by the use of 6-mercaptopurine.
The spectrum of antiviral activities of acyclovir in vitro and in vivo.
  • P. Collins
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
  • 1983
In vitro sensitivity data suggest that acyclovir should be effective against clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus and possibly Epstein-Barr virus. The