The pupil as a measure of emotional arousal and autonomic activation.

@article{Bradley2008ThePA,
  title={The pupil as a measure of emotional arousal and autonomic activation.},
  author={Margaret M. Bradley and Laura S. Miccoli and Miguel A. Escrig and Peter J. Lang},
  journal={Psychophysiology},
  year={2008},
  volume={45 4},
  pages={
          602-7
        }
}
Pupil diameter was monitored during picture viewing to assess effects of hedonic valence and emotional arousal on pupillary responses. Autonomic activity (heart rate and skin conductance) was concurrently measured to determine whether pupillary changes are mediated by parasympathetic or sympathetic activation. Following an initial light reflex, pupillary changes were larger when viewing emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of whether these were pleasant or unpleasant. Pupillary changes… 

Figures from this paper

Arousal Effects on Pupil Size, Heart Rate, and Skin Conductance in an Emotional Face Task

A trial-by-trial relationship between pupil size and HR or GSR is demonstrated, suggesting that pupil size can be used as an index for arousal level involuntarily regulated by the autonomic nervous system.

Emotional imagery and pupil diameter.

Results indicated a significant effect of hedonic content beginning shortly after script onset, with enhanced pupil diameter when imagining emotional (pleasant or unpleasant), compared to neutral, scenes.

Pupil dilation and self-reported emotional response to IAPS pictures: the role of emotional regulation and trait mindfulness

Mindfulness has been associated with reduced emotional reactivity, with meditators showing an increased pupillary contraction and a weaker dilation to negative stimuli with respect to non-meditators.

Emotional words impact the mind but not the body: evidence from pupillary responses.

Emotional arousal attributed to words works on a cognitive level, facilitating word processing and eliciting smaller pupillary responses than low-arousing words; these effects were independent of task load, which increased pupil diameter.

Autonomic nervous system reactivity within the valence-arousal affective space: Modulation by sex and age.

  • P. GomezA. von GuntenB. Danuser
  • Psychology
    International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology
  • 2016

Pupil Constrictions and Their Associations With Increased Negative Affect During Responses to Recalled Memories of Interpersonal Stress

Abstract. Pupil diameter change is indicative of emotional processing. Most previous findings regarding pupillary response and emotion have reported that the pupil enlarges in response to the

Eye pupil - a window into central autonomic regulation via emotional/cognitive processing.

If the eyes are windows into the soul, then the pupils represent at least the gateway to the brain and can provide a unique insight into the human mind from several aspects. The changes in the pupil

Emotional modulation of the pupil in psychopathy: A test of the Response Modulation Hypothesis.

What our eyes tell us about feelings: Tracking pupillary responses during emotion regulation processes.

Results indicate that pupil diameter is modulated by emotional arousal, but is initially related to the extent of mental effort required to regulate automatic emotional responses, first evidence that the pupillary response might comprise two distinct temporal components reflecting cognitive emotion regulation effort on the one hand and emotion regulation success on the other hand.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 13 REFERENCES

Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing.

The findings suggest that affective responses serve different functions-mobilization for action, attention, and social communication-and reflect the motivational system that is engaged, its intensity of activation, and the specific emotional context.

Looking at pictures: affective, facial, visceral, and behavioral reactions.

Responsibility specificity, particularly facial expressiveness, supported the view that specific affects have unique patterns of reactivity, and consistency of the dimensional relationships between evaluative judgments and physiological response emphasizes that emotion is fundamentally organized by these motivational parameters.

Pupillary and cardiac activity during visual attention.

The prediction that attention to the environment leads to sympathetic-like dilatation and parasympathetic-like cardiac slowing was satisfied, demonstrating directional fractionation and situational stereotypy and correlations were low and highly variable among subjects and stimuli.

The Hess pupil dilation findings: Sex or novelty?

Pupil dilation research was initially focused upon emotional reactions and then shifted almost entirely to information processing. In the present study we return to the initial research and addresses

Pupillary responses to emotionally provocative stimuli

The results suggest that pupil size discriminates during and after different kinds of emotional stimuli, and the measurement of pupil size variation my be a potentially useful computer input signal, for example, for affective computing.

Pupil Size as Related to Interest Value of Visual Stimuli

Increases in the size of the pupil of the eye have been found to accompany the viewing of emotionally toned or interesting visual stimuli. A technique for recording such changes has been developed,

Technical Report A-6

  • Gainesville, FL: University of Florida;
  • 2005

The pupillary system.

Conspecific screams and laughter: cardiac and behavioral reactions of infant chimpanzees.

The present study examined cardiac and behavioral reactions of infant chimpanzees to white noise and to conspecific screams and laughter, which raised the possibility that the functional reaction to this vocalization may be related to its origin in more primitive agonistic facio-vocal signals.