Prolonged exposure to cadmium may cause damage to various organs. It may especially induce inflammatory reaction in the liver, kidneys, and respiratory system, and research in recent years indicates that this may be the case of the cardiovascular system as well. It is also know that inflammation is one of the pathways in atherosclerosis. This is a short review of current knowledge about this proinflammatory action. In the cardiovascular system, cadmium may interact in the synthesis or regeneration of extracellular matrix compounds, especially glycosaminoglycans, and may act on the structure and metabolism of the endothelium. Damage to the subendothelial matrix and endothelial cells may be responsible for the development of atherosclerotic plaque in cadmium-exposed individuals.