The probiotic paradox: live and dead cells are biological response modifiers

  title={The probiotic paradox: live and dead cells are biological response modifiers},
  author={Clifford A. Adams},
  journal={Nutrition Research Reviews},
  pages={37 - 46}
  • C. Adams
  • Published 20 April 2010
  • Biology
  • Nutrition Research Reviews
Probiotics are usually defined as products which contain viable non-pathogenic micro-organisms able to confer health benefits to the host. [] Key Result Heat-killed cells of Enterococcus faecalis stimulate the gastrointestinal immune system in chicks. Dead bifidobacteria induce significant increases in TNF-alpha production. Administration of heat-killed E. faecalis to healthy dogs increases neutrophil phagocytes. The probiotic paradox is that both live and dead cells in probiotic products can generate…

The viability of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 is not essential to exert intestinal anti-inflammatory properties.

Both live and dead L. fermentum CECT5716 have been demonstrated to attenuate the inflammatory process and diminish the production of some of the inflammatory mediators.

Health Benefits of Heat-Killed (Tyndallized) Probiotics: An Overview

Data indicate that heat-killed bacteria or their fractions or purified components have key probiotic effects, with advantages versus live probiotics (mainly their safety profile), positioning them as interesting strategies for the management of common prevalent conditions in a wide variety of patients´ characteristics.

The immunomodulatory properties of probiotic microorganisms beyond their viability (ghost probiotics: proposal of paraprobiotic concept)

In the light of the FAO/WHO definition of probiotics, indicating that the word ‘probiotic’ should be restricted to products that contain live microorganisms, and considering the scientific evidence indicating that inactivated microbes can positively affect human health, the new term ‘paraprobiotic' is proposed to indicate the use of inactivated microbial cells or cell fractions to confer a health benefit to the consumer.

Heat killed Lactobacillus acidophilus mediates Fusobacterium nucleatum induced pro-inflammatory responses in epithelial cells.

This study demonstrated that heat killed Lactobacillus acidophilus was able to coaggregate with Fusobacterium nucleatum, the bridging bacteria of oral biofilm, and inhibit the adhesion and invasion of F.ucleatum, leading to a subsequent elimination of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in oral epithelial cells.

Potential Health-Promoting Benefits of Paraprobiotics, Inactivated Probiotic Cells

Paraprobiotics have attracted much attention because of their long shelf life, safety, and beneficial effects, such as modulation of immunity, modification of biological responses, reduction of cholesterol, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties, which indicate that paraprobiotics may play a vital role in improving the health of the consumer.

Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

The current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains are described.

Immunomodulation of Monocytes by Probiotic and Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria

The results add to the complexity in the interaction between LAB and human cells and suggest the possible involvement of secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators of LAB.

jmbReview Micronized and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum LM 1004 Stimulates Host Immune Responses Via the TLR-2 / MAPK / NF-κ B Signalling Pathway In Vitro and In Vivo

Interestingly, emerging evidence from various studies has revealed that even heat-treated probiotics might confer apparent health benefits to the host even though the FAO/ WHO still emphasize a limited use of live microorganisms for probiotics.

Immunomodulatory effect of non-viable components of probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus on holoxenic mice

The obtained results demonstrate that non-viable fractions of probiotic bacteria, stimulated by other bacterial species, could induce immunostimulatory effects mediated by cytokines and act, therefore, as immunological adjuvants.

Challenges in translational research on probiotic lactobacilli: from in vitro assays to clinical trials.

This review focuses on the immunomodulatory properties of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in vitro and in vivo, current knowledge concerning the mechanisms in vivo and challenges in translational research on probiotics.



Probiotics: effects on immunity.

The data show that probiotics can be used as innovative tools to alleviate intestinal inflammation, normalize gut mucosal dysfunction, and down-regulate hypersensitivity reactions and suggest that specific immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria should be characterized when developing clinical applications for extended target populations.

Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: possible mechanisms of action

The findings that live probiotics may not be mandatory to be beneficial, and that therapeutic effects may be obtained by systemic, rather than oral administration could have a major impact on the practical use and manufacturing of probiotics.

Role of Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Immune Effects Mediated by Gram-Positive Probiotic Bacteria: Involvement of Toll-Like Receptors

The small intestine is the place where a major distinction would occur between probiotic LAB and pathogens, cutting across the line that separates IL-6 necessary for B-cell differentiation, from inflammatory levels of IL- 6 for pathogens.

Antiproliferative Effects of Homogenates Derived from Five Strains of Candidate Probiotic Bacteria

Findings indicate that candidate probiotic bacteria possess a heat-stable antiproliferative component(s) that may be used to generate microbiologically nonviable yet immunologically active probiotic food products that are easier to store and have a longer shelf life.

Enterococcus faecium SF68 enhances the immune response to Giardia intestinalis in mice.

The improvement of specific immune responses in probiotic-fed mice was associated with a diminution in the number of active trophozoites in the small intestine as well as decreased shedding of fecal Giardia antigens.

Alive and dead Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decrease tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced interleukin-8 production in Caco-2 cells.

Heat-killed LGG may effectively ameliorate inflammation with a lower potential than live LGG at high doses to cause inflammation, and downregulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production under all 3 conditions.

An analysis of the effectiveness of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria in alleviating allergic diseases.

The present data suggest that L. gasseri OLL2809 is a good candidate for potential probiotic lactobacilli in terms of either the prevention or amelioration of allergic diseases or both.

Differential NF-κB pathways induction by Lactobacillus plantarum in the duodenum of healthy humans correlating with immune tolerance

This in vivo study identified mucosal gene expression patterns and cellular pathways that correlated with the establishment of immune tolerance in healthy adults that were identified in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study.