OBJECTIVES To investigate the prevalence of insomnia (DIS: difficulty initiating sleep; DMS: difficulty maintaining sleep; and EMA: early morning awakening), its socio-demographic and clinical correlates, and the treatment patterns in older adults in rural China. METHOD A sample of 263 subjects was recruited in Mianyang and interviewed using standardized instruments. Basic socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. RESULTS The expected mean total sleep time (TST) of the whole sample was 6.8 ± 2.2 hours, and the actual mean TST was 6.3 ± 2.1 hours. The 1-year prevalence of at least one type of insomnia was 7.6%; the rates of DIS, DMS, and EMA were 5.7%, 7.2%, and 6.8%, respectively. On multivariate analyses, female sex and psychiatric disorders were independently associated with more frequent insomnia. CONCLUSION Insomnia is not uncommon in older adults in rural China, and the low percentage of subjects treated suggests that improved access to treatment might be indicated.