Depression commonly overlaps with uremic symptoms, but anxiety is less commonly studied among renal patients. The symptoms of medical illness, along with the psychological and social stresses that often accompany a debilitating chronic disease, are thought to produce deleterious psychological consequences. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among Saudi dialysis patients in Makkah. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and depression among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in Makkah was conducted in November 2011. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen for anxiety and depression. Participants' demographic data, possible stressors and past psychiatric history were obtained. All participants were Saudi ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. According to HADS, 57 (21.1%) patients were probable cases of anxiety and 63 (23.3%) were probable cases of depression. Only 32 (11.3%) were diagnosed with depression or anxiety before ESRD onset. Age was a significant predictor of anxiety and depression diagnoses. Major family problems (p = 0.001) were also a significant predictor of anxiety. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent among ESRD patients in Makkah, and anxiety can be predicted by family factors. Early detection, management and family support might improve clinical outcomes.