The pretesting effect: do unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance learning?

@article{Richland2009ThePE,
  title={The pretesting effect: do unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance learning?},
  author={Lindsey Engle Richland and Nate Kornell and Liche Sean Kao},
  journal={Journal of experimental psychology. Applied},
  year={2009},
  volume={15 3},
  pages={
          243-57
        }
}
Testing previously studied information enhances long-term memory, particularly when the information is successfully retrieved from memory. The authors examined the effect of unsuccessful retrieval attempts on learning. Participants in 5 experiments read an essay about vision. In the test condition, they were asked about embedded concepts before reading the passage; in the extended study condition, they were given a longer time to read the passage. To distinguish the effects of testing from… 

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