The preservation of ophthalmic solutions with antibacterial combinations

  title={The preservation of ophthalmic solutions with antibacterial combinations},
  author={R. Michael E. Richards and R. J. Mcbride},
  journal={Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology},
Solutions of pilocarpine, atropine and physostigmine preserved with benzalkonium, chlorhexidine, phenylmercuric nitrate (PMN), chlorocresol and chlorbutol in simple solution and in combination with either phenylethanol or disodium edetate (EDTA), were contaminated on two separate occasions with high inocula of P. aeruginosa. Phenylethanol‐antibacterial combinations were consistently effective in killing the inoculum within 15 min except for one formulation with chlorhexidine and physostigmine… Expand
Irritation by eyedrops containing 2-phenylethanol
  • Y. Boer
  • Medicine
  • Pharmaceutisch weekblad
  • 2005
The conclusion that 2-phenylethanol was well tolerated by the eye was based on a literature survey of review articles (Ophthalmica 1975, 1978; TROMP 1975); a further search yielded the following results. Expand
Antipseudomonal effect of polymyxin and phenylethanol.
It is suggested that there is no cross-resistance between polymyxin and either benzalkonium chloride or chlorhexidine acetate. Expand
The decomposition of phenylmercuric nitrate caused by disodium edetate in neomycin eye drops during the process of heat sterilization
Application of high‐performance liquid chromatographic assays to neomycin eye drops of the Pharmaceutical Codex and Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary show that edetate promotes approximately 20% decomposition of the phenylmercuric nitrate in the drops ofThe Pharmaceutical Codex but little in the Drops of the Australian Pharmaceutical formulary during sterilization by the recommended method. Expand
A potentiating effect of EDTA on the bactericidal activity of lower concentrations of ethanol
Abstract The bactericidal activity of 10 and 5% ethanol alone and in the presence of EDTA against ps. aeruginosa, E. coli and Staph. aureus has been studied using the extinction-time and theExpand
Studies on the evaluation of preservative efficacy
Abstract Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for the study of preservation efficacy of benzalkoniumExpand
Enhancement of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine acetate activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by aromatic alcohols.
The actions of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine acetate in combination with benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, or 3-phenylpropanol were evaluated at subinhibitory concentrations by measuring theExpand
Synergy in preservative combinations
The complex nature of many pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations renders the problem of their preservation an exacting challenge. Often a single antimicrobial agent (at a permissibleExpand
The biochemical basis of synergy between the antibacterial agents, chlorocresol and 2-phenylethanol
The combined antimicrobial action of chlorocresol and 2-phenylethanol has been investigated. Synergy in growth inhibition experiments was reflected by increased membrane permeability to hydrogen,Expand
Ocular tolerance of preservatives on the murine cornea.
  • P. Furrer, J. Mayer, B. Plazonnet, R. Gurny
  • Medicine
  • European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
  • 1999
In none of the tested combinations, the increase in the observed damage exceed the limit of ocular intolerance the authors had defined beforehand: thus, they were all deemed relatively well-tolerated. Expand
Factorial designs in the evaluation of preservative efficacy
An approach to evaluate preservative efficacy using a 23 factorial design is presented. The influence of pH and tonicity of the solution and the presence of EDTA on the antimicrobial activity ofExpand


Phenylethanol enhancement of preservatives used in ophthalmic preparations
The growth rates of P. aeruginosa in subinhibitory concentrations of antibacterial preservatives alone and in combination with phenylethanol were determined by an extinction method and the results have been confirmed by viable counts. Expand
Preservation of fluorescein solutions against contamination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa
A combination of phenylmercuric nitrate and phenylethyl alcohol was more effective in preserving fluorescein solutions against contamination with P. aeruginosa than phenylmercuric nitrate alone. P.Expand
Preservation of sodium bicarbonate eye lotion BPC against contamination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
It has been suggested that a sterilizing time of I hour or less is what should be expected of an antibacterial substance considered suitable for the preservation of ophthalmic solutions, and 2-phenylethanol (PEA) is a more effective preservative system for fluorescein sodium eye drops than the official BPC formulation, which is preserved with PMN alone. Expand
Survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in fluorescein solution. Preservative action of PMN and EDTA
Colony counts were made for a year on washed and unwashed cells of Ps. aeruginosa inoculated into fluorescein sodium solution, 2 percent in water (pH 8.6), into nutrient broth, into tris buffer (pHExpand
Inactivation of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa by antibacterial combinations
  • R. Richards
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
  • 1971
P. aeruginosa resistant to preservative concentrations of benzalkonium chloride, phenylmercuric nitrate and chlorocresol in nutrient broth was inactivated by using phenylethanol‐antibacterial combinations by showing a greater general usefulness than EDTA at the concentrations tested. Expand
Antibacterial agents in Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated ophthalmic solutions.
In vivo rabbit corneal tests along with improved techniques of invitro testing indicate that bactericidal concentrations of preservatives are required for maximum safety in ophthalmic solutions. Expand
Effect of Ethylenediamine Tetraacetate on the Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Antibacterial Agents
It was found that the activity of polymyxin B sulphate, benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine diacetate against this organism was substantially increased in the presence of EDTA, and EDTA was also found to potentiate the action of poly myxin against cells grown in undiluted serum. Expand
Preparation, sterilization, and preservation of ophthalmic solutions; experimental studies and a practical method.
It is demonstrated that simple, relatively inexpensive measures are sufficient to achieve accuracy of formulation and sterility of collyria, without sacrifice of drug stability or power of corneal penetration. Expand
Fifty‐one chemical substances, not heretofore employed as preservatives in ophthalmic solutions, were examined for their effectiveness as antibacterial agents against 13 different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and eleven showed a satisfactory sterilizing time against these strains. Expand
The effect of Polysorbate (Tween) 80 on the growth rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
The reproducibility of the growth rate measurement has been established and the apparent change in the rate of growth at an early stage when determined spectrophotometrically is associated with cell clumping. Expand