The presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 interferes with effect of TGF-beta1 on antigen presenting cells in patients with multiple sclerosis and in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.


The possibility to generate and expand tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) with TGF-beta1 in vitro opens new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In the present study, GM-CSF+IL-4 induced the differentiation of DC from adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which had a higher expression of HLA-DR, CD86 and CD1a and the… (More)