The pre‐B cell receptor checkpoint

@article{Mrtensson2010ThePC,
  title={The pre‐B cell receptor checkpoint},
  author={Inga-Lill M{\aa}rtensson and Nina Almqvist and Ola Grimsholm and Angelina I. Bernardi},
  journal={FEBS Letters},
  year={2010},
  volume={584}
}

The Pre‐B Cell Receptor; Selecting for or against Autoreactivity

TLDR
The role of the pre‐BCR in the selection at this stage, how a dysfunctional pre‐ BCR affects selection and its effects on later stages, and whether the pre-BCR selects for or against autoreactivity are discussed.

Mechanisms of pre‐B‐cell receptor checkpoint control and its oncogenic subversion in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

TLDR
This review describes checkpoint mechanisms during normal B‐cell development and then discusses how genetic lesions in these pathways function as oncogenic mimicries and allow transformed pre‐B cells to bypass checkpoint control.

VALIDATION OF THE PRE-B CELL RECEPTOR AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET IN B CELL PRECURSOR ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

TLDR
This dissertation showed that pre-BCRs formed transient, homotypic interactions that helped to maintain leukemia blast survival and displayed correlated motion at short separation distances that is consistent with the formation of dimers.

Investigating novel components and mechanisms involved in B cell receptor-antigen internalisation

TLDR
It is concluded that coupling contractility to endocytosis permits B cells to discriminate between antigen affinities, which provides a mechanism for the selective advantage seen for high affinity B cell clones in vivo.

A Novel Mechanism for the Autonomous Termination of Pre-B Cell Receptor Expression via Induction of Lysosome-Associated Protein Transmembrane 5

TLDR
It is demonstrated that the pre-BCR signal induces the expression of lysosome-associated protein transmembrane 5 (LAPTM5), which leads to the prompt downmodulation of the pre, BCR, through the induction of LAP TM5, which promotes the lysOSomal transport and degradation of the intracellular pre- BCR pool and, hence, limits the supply of pre,BCR to the cell surface.

CD19: A multifunctional immunological target molecule and its implications for Blineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia

TLDR
This review will discuss the rationale behind targeting CD19 in BCP‐ALL and its potential importance in B CP‐ALL signaling pathways.
...

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The pre-B-cell receptor.

Predominant Autoantibody Production by Early Human B Cell Precursors

TLDR
The prevalence of self-reactive antibody formation and its regulation in human B cells is determined and a majority (55 to 75%) of all antibodies expressed by early immature B cells displayedSelf-reactivity, including polyreactive and anti-nuclear specificities.

B cell development pathways.

TLDR
Progress in understanding some aspects of this process in the mouse bone marrow is reviewed, focusing on delineation of the earliest stages of commitment, on pre-B cell receptor selection, and B cell tolerance during the immature-to-mature B cell transition.

The pre‐B‐cell receptor induces silencing of VpreB and λ5 transcription

TLDR
It is demonstrated that, as BM cells progress from the pre‐BI to large pre-BII‐cell stage, there is a shift from bi‐ to mono‐allelic λ5 transcription, while the second allele is silenced in small pre‐ BII cells, suggesting that VpreB1 is similarly regulated and thereby defines the promoter as a target for transcriptional silencing.

Induction of pre-B cell proliferation after de novo synthesis of the pre-B cell receptor.

TLDR
It is shown that de novo synthesis of mu H-chain in transgenic pro-B cells not only induces differentiation but also proliferation, and it is concluded that pre-BCR signaling induces clonal expansion of early pre- B cells.

A critical role of lambda 5 protein in B cell development.

TLDR
In mice in which the lambda 5 gene is inactivated by targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells, B cell development in the bone marrow is blocked at the pre-B cell stage, however, the blockade is leaky, allowing B cells to populate the peripheral immune system at a low rate.

The adaptor protein SLP-65 acts as a tumor suppressor that limits pre-B cell expansion

TLDR
It is shown that compared to wild-type cells, SLP-65−/− pre-B cells show an enhanced ex vivo proliferative capacity and this proliferation requires interleukin 7 and expression of the pre- B cell receptor (pre-BCR).
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