The plastic human brain cortex.

@article{PascualLeone2005ThePH,
  title={The plastic human brain cortex.},
  author={{\'A}lvaro Pascual-Leone and Amir Amedi and Felipe Fregni and Lotfi B. Merabet},
  journal={Annual review of neuroscience},
  year={2005},
  volume={28},
  pages={
          377-401
        }
}
Plasticity is an intrinsic property of the human brain and represents evolution's invention to enable the nervous system to escape the restrictions of its own genome and thus adapt to environmental pressures, physiologic changes, and experiences. Dynamic shifts in the strength of preexisting connections across distributed neural networks, changes in task-related cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical coherence and modifications of the mapping between behavior and neural activity take place in… 

Figures from this paper

Disrupting the brain to guide plasticity and improve behavior.

Experience-dependent structural plasticity in the adult human brain

  • A. May
  • Psychology, Biology
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences
  • 2011

Plasticity in the Human Visual Cortex: An Ophthalmology-Based Perspective

Understanding plasticity mechanisms could have major implications in the diagnosis and treatment of ocular diseases, such as retinal disorders, cataract and refractive surgery, amblyopia, and in the evaluation of surgical materials and techniques.

Brain Plasticity in Neurosurgery

Individual mapping studies in patients with well-defined brain lesions not only enhance the outcome of operations but may provide a practical route to understanding, visualizing, and even modulating brain plasticity.

Neural and cognitive plasticity: from maps to minds.

  • E. Mercado
  • Psychology, Biology
    Psychological bulletin
  • 2008
It is hypothesized that cognitive plasticity depends on the number and diversity of cortical modules that an organism has available as well as the brain's capacity to flexibly reconfigure and customize networks of these modules.

Sensory Deprivation and Brain Plasticity

Several papers present results on cross-modal plasticity and sensory substitution in humans and in animal models of sensory deprivation and two studies highlight how other sensory modalities take over the deprived visual or auditory cortices in blind and deaf subjects, respectively.

Characterizing Brain Cortical Plasticity and Network Dynamics Across the Age-Span in Health and Disease with TMS-EEG and TMS-fMRI

It is argued that, for each individual, the efficiency of neuronal plasticity declines throughout the age-span and may do so more or less prominently depending on variable ‘starting-points’ and different ‘slopes of change’ defined by genetic, biological, and environmental factors.

Do children really recover better? Neurobehavioural plasticity after early brain insult.

It is concluded that neither plasticity nor vulnerability theories are able to explain the range of functional outcomes from early brain insult, and where a child's outcome falls along a 'recovery continuum' depends on injury factors and environmental influences.

Functional Development and Plasticity of Parvalbumin Cells in Visual Cortex: Role of Thalamocortical Input

It is found that GFP-positive PV cells in layer 4 undergo a rapid maturation after eye opening just prior to onset of the critical period, and a visual thalamocortical slice is optimized and characterized to examine the primary afferent input onto both pyramidal and PV cells.

Regeneration and Plasticity in the Brain and Spinal Cord

  • B. Johansson
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 2007
The concept of brain plasticity covers all the mechanisms involved in the capacity of the brain to adjust and remodel itself in response to environmental requirements, experience, skill acquisition,
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 113 REFERENCES

Theta Burst Stimulation of the Human Motor Cortex

Developmental plasticity and memory

Reshaping the cortical motor map by unmasking latent intracortical connections

During pharmacological blockade of cortical inhibition in one part of the MI representation, movements of neighboring representations were evoked by stimulation in adjacent MI areas, suggesting that intracortical connections form a substrate for reorganization of cortical maps and that inhibitory circuits are critically placed to maintain or readjust the form of cortical motor representations.

Behavioral and neuroplastic changes in the blind: evidence for functionally relevant cross-modal interactions

The acquisition of skilled motor performance: fast and slow experience-driven changes in primary motor cortex.

It is shown that a few minutes of daily practice on a sequential finger opposition task can be sufficient to trigger performance gains that require time to become evident, and proposed that skilled motor performance is acquired in several stages: "fast" learning, an initial, within-session improvement phase, followed by a period of consolidation of several hours duration, and then "slow" learnings, consisting of delayed, incremental gains in performance emerging after continued practice.

Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system.

Advances in the understanding of adult neurogenesis will not only shed light on the basic principles of adult plasticity, but also may lead to strategies for cell replacement therapy after injury or degenerative neurological diseases.

An integrative theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function: adaptive gain and optimal performance.

Historically, the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system has been implicated in arousal, but recent findings suggest that this system plays a more complex and specific role in the control of

Post-infarct cortical plasticity and behavioral recovery using concurrent cortical stimulation and rehabilitative training: A feasibility study in primates

Results support the feasibility of using a therapy approach combining peri-infarct electrical stimulation with rehabilitative training to alleviate chronic motor deficits and promote recovery from cortical ischemic injury.

Functional MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticity during motor skill learning

A slowly evolving, long-term, experience-dependent reorganization of the adult Ml is suggested, which may underlie the acquisition and retention of the motor skill.

Communication in Neuronal Networks

The authors are beginning to understand some of the geometric, biophysical, and energy constraints that have governed the evolution of cortical networks and how the brain exploits the adaptability of biological systems to reconfigure in response to changing needs.
...