The planet nine hypothesis

  title={The planet nine hypothesis},
  author={Konstantin Batygin and Fred C. Adams and Michael E. Brown and Juliette C. Becker},
  journal={Physics Reports},
Over the course of the past two decades, observational surveys have unveiled the intricate orbital structure of the Kuiper Belt, a field of icy bodies orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune. In addition to a host of readily-predictable orbital behavior, the emerging census of trans-Neptunian objects displays dynamical phenomena that cannot be accounted for by interactions with the known eight-planet solar system alone. Specifically, explanations for the observed physical clustering of orbits with semi… Expand
Orbital Precession in the Distant Solar System: Further Constraining the Planet Nine Hypothesis with Numerical Simulations
The longitudes of perihelia and orbital poles of the solar system's dozen or so most remote detected objects are clustered in a manner inconsistent with that of a random sample of uniformlyExpand
Signatures of a Distant Planet on the Inclination Distribution of the Detached Kuiper Belt
  • Kalee E. Anderson, N. Kaib
  • Physics
  • The Astrophysical Journal Letters
  • 2021
A distant, massive planet in the outer solar system has recently been proposed to explain some observed features of extreme trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Here we use N-body simulations of theExpand
Injection of Inner Oort Cloud Objects into the Distant Kuiper Belt by Planet Nine
The outer solar system exhibits an anomalous pattern of orbital clustering, characterized by an approximate alignment of the apsidal lines and angular momentum vectors of distant, long-term stableExpand
Features of the Dynamical Evolution of a Massive Disk of Trans-Neptunian Objects
Abstract— The dynamical features of a massive disk of distant trans-Neptunian objects are considered in the model of the formation of small bodies in the Hill region of a giant gas-dust clumpExpand
The Orbit of Planet Nine
The existence of a giant planet beyond Neptune—referred to as Planet Nine (P9)—has been inferred from the clustering of longitude of perihelion and pole position of distant eccentric Kuiper beltExpand
Apsidal asymmetric-alignment of Jupiter Trojans
The most distant Kuiper belt objects exhibit the clustering in their orbits, and this anomalous architecture could be caused by Planet 9 with large eccentricity and high inclination. We then supposeExpand
No evidence for interstellar planetesimals trapped in the Solar system
In two recent papers published in MNRAS, Namouni and Morais claimed evidence for the interstellar origin of some small Solar system bodies, including: (i) objects in retrograde co-orbital motion withExpand
The Resonance Hopping Effect in the Neptune-planet Nine System
The observed physical clustering of the orbits of small bodies in the distant Kuiper Belt (TNOs) has recently prompted the prediction of an additional planet in the outer solar system. Since theExpand
Can orbital clustering of KBOs in the ecliptic be due to the solar toroidal field generated spacetime dragging?
The Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) exhibit an orbital clustering of the outer planets lying at perihelion distances larger than Neptune and semimajor axes greater than 150 AU from the Sun. This implies aExpand
Orbital features of distant trans-Neptunian objects induced by giant gaseous clumps
Context. The discovery of distant trans-Neptunian objects has led to heated discussions about the structure of the outer Solar System. Aims. We study the dynamical evolution of small bodies from theExpand


The Generation of the Distant Kuiper Belt by Planet Nine from an Initially Broad Perihelion Distribution
The observation that the orbits of long-period Kuiper Belt objects are anomalously clustered in physical space has recently prompted the Planet Nine hypothesis - the proposed existence of a distantExpand
The trans-Neptunian region of the solar system exhibits an intricate dynamical structure, much of which can be explained by an instability-driven orbital history of the giant planets. However, theExpand
Dynamical Evolution Induced by Planet Nine
The observational census of trans-Neptunian objects with semi-major axes greater than ~250 AU exhibits unexpected orbital structure that is most readily attributed to gravitational perturbationsExpand
Recent analyses have shown that distant orbits within the scattered disk population of the Kuiper Belt exhibit an unexpected clustering in their respective arguments of perihelion. While severalExpand
The determination of planetary structure in tidally relaxed inclined systems
The recent discovery of a transiting short-period planet on a slightly non-circular orbit with a massive highly eccentric companion orbiting the star HAT-P-13 offers the possibility of probing theExpand
The Existence of a Planet beyond 50 AU and the Orbital Distribution of the Classical Edgeworth–Kuiper-Belt Objects
Abstract We study the effects of a Mars-like planetoid with a semimajor axis at about ∼60 AU orbiting embedded in the primordial Edgeworth–Kuiper belt (EKB). The origin of such an object can beExpand
Observational Signatures of a Massive Distant Planet on the Scattering Disk
The orbital element distribution of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with large pericenters has been suggested to be influenced by the presence of an undetected, large planet at >200 AU from the Sun.Expand
The origin of Pluto's orbit: implications for the
The origin of the highly eccentric, inclined, and resonance-locked orbit of Pluto has long been a puzzle. A possible explanation has been proposed recently which suggests that these extraordinaryExpand
Dynamical Evolution of the Early Solar System
  • D. Nesvorný
  • Physics
  • Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • 2018
Several properties of the Solar System, including the wide radial spacing of the giant planets, can be explained if planets radially migrated by exchanging orbital energy and momentum with outer diskExpand
Observational constraints on the orbit and location of Planet Nine in the outer solar system
We use an extensive suite of numerical simulations to constrain the mass and orbit of Planet Nine, the recently proposed perturber in a distant eccentric orbit in the outer solar system. We compareExpand