The placebo response in medicine: minimize, maximize or personalize?

  title={The placebo response in medicine: minimize, maximize or personalize?},
  author={Paul Enck and Ulrike Bingel and Manfred Schedlowski and Winfried Rief},
  journal={Nature Reviews Drug Discovery},
  • P. Enck, U. Bingel, W. Rief
  • Published 1 March 2013
  • Psychology, Medicine, Biology
  • Nature Reviews Drug Discovery
Our understanding of the mechanisms mediating or moderating the placebo response to medicines has grown substantially over the past decade and offers the opportunity to capitalize on its benefits in future drug development as well as in clinical practice. In this article, we discuss three strategies that could be used to modulate the placebo response, depending on which stage of the drug development process they are applied. In clinical trials the placebo effect should be minimized to optimize… 
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An analysis of the control groups in double-blind trials of medicines demonstrates broad variation--from 0 to 100 percent--in placebo effectiveness rates for the same treatment for the same
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