The pineal gland and geographical distribution of animals

@article{Ralph1975ThePG,
  title={The pineal gland and geographical distribution of animals},
  author={C. Ralph},
  journal={International Journal of Biometeorology},
  year={1975},
  volume={19},
  pages={289-303}
}
  • C. Ralph
  • Published 1975
  • Biology, Medicine
  • International Journal of Biometeorology
A detailed analysis of the occurrence of parietal eye component of the pineal complex in families of lizards has revealed that those in which the parietal eye is absent in most genera (e.g. Gekkonidae, Teiidae) tend to be restricted to low latitudes, whereas families in which the parietal eye is present in most of the genera (e.g. Agamidae, Iguanidae) extend to higher latitudes. Those few genera which lack parietal eyes in the families where the very great majority have parietal eyes are… Expand
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SummaryThe ultrastructure of the pinealocytes of the Malaysian rat (Rattus sabanus), a mammal inhabiting a zone near the equator where the annual variations of daylength are inconspicuous, wasExpand
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Abstract: The structure and ultrastructure of the pineal gland of the degu or trumpet‐tailed rat (Octodon degus), a rodent inhabiting tropical‐equatorial areas, was examined under light and electronExpand
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TLDR
The results suggest a gradual and convergent loss of the photoreceptive function of the pineal organ and degeneration of the third eye in mammals, which may be correlated with the transition from a mesothermic metabolism to a high metabolic rate in mammalian ancestry. Expand
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TLDR
Melatonin may be a key molecule, attuned to photoperiodicity, which has been selected through evolution to effect adaptation to annual events, which permit an animal to anticipate seasonal changes. Expand
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TLDR
The large and extremely active pineal gland in newborn southern elephant seal suggests that it is actively involved in thermoregulation. Expand
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TLDR
The pineal organ is an ancient derivative and integral component of the brain that has changed from a ‘third eye’ endowed with photoreceptor cells to an endocrine gland influenced by visual stimuli from the retina. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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References

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SURVEY OF THE INNERVATION OF THE EPIPHYSIS CEREBRI AND THE ACCESSORY PINEAL ORGANS OF VERTEBRATES.
This chapter discusses the data available on the innervation of the epiphysis and the accessory pineal organs in different vertebrate classes, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and birds. In mostExpand
SURVEY OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY OF THE PINEAL ORGAN.
  • A. Oksche
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Progress in brain research
  • 1965
TLDR
From a phylogenetic aspect, few organs have undergone a change in form and cytological differentiation as has the pineal organ, and the morphological crux of the problem lies in its transformation from a sense organ to a gland. Expand
Light microscopic studies on the pineal organ in teleost fishes with special regard to its function
TLDR
The preponderance of sensory cells in the pineal organ of Symphysodon aequifasciatus and Gyrinocheilus aymoneri indicates exceptional adaptitions for a predominantly photosensory role. Expand
Infrequency of Pineal Atrophy among Birds and Its Relation to Nocturnality
TLDR
The pineal biochemical changes have been postulated most commonly to be related to a pineal endocrine secretory activity which may have some physiological significance in relation to adaptation to photoperiod, either on a short-term or seasonal basis. Expand
Structure and alleged functions of avian pineals.
  • C. Ralph
  • Medicine, Biology
  • American zoologist
  • 1970
TLDR
The pineal is structurally very diverse among the avian species that have been examined, and a role for this body in controlling gonadal function is indicated, but the evidence is not consistent. Expand
The structure of the pineal organ of the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus
  • R. Murphy
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of morphology
  • 1971
TLDR
The pineal organ of the bluefin tuna was studied using light and electron microscopy and sensory cells have the basic appearance of retinal photoreceptors. Expand
The Photoreceptors of Lampreys: II. The Functions of the Pineal Complex
TLDR
The paling of an ammocoete when it passes from light to darkness is probably due to the inhibition of posterior pituitary secretion by nervous impulses set up by the change of illumination of the pineal complex. Expand
Histological Studies on the Pineal Organ of 15 Species of Teleosts
TLDR
Histological observations were made on the pineal organ of 15 species of teleosts and the presence of pineal window was ascertained in 8 species of fishes, and discussion wasmade on the histological structures of the pineAL organ of fishes. Expand
HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND CYTOLOGY OF THE PINEAL ORGAN IN BIRDS AND MAMMALS.
  • W. B. Quay
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Progress in brain research
  • 1965
TLDR
The findings that are functionally suggestive and those that are important in the design and interpretation of experiments purporting to demonstrate pineal function or activity are discussed in the chapter. Expand
The epiphysis cerebri of the Weddell seal: its remarkable size and glandular pattern.
TLDR
A morphologic study of the pineal of the Weddell seal (Leptonichotes weddelli) was carried out during a whole polar year and Pinealocytes that are present only in the cortical region showed a clear seasonal variation in their lipidic content. Expand
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