The pineal gland: anatomy, physiology, and clinical significance.

@article{Erlich1985ThePG,
  title={The pineal gland: anatomy, physiology, and clinical significance.},
  author={S. Erlich and M. Apuzzo},
  journal={Journal of neurosurgery},
  year={1985},
  volume={63 3},
  pages={
          321-41
        }
}
Since the discovery of melatonin approximately 25 years ago, there has been intense study regarding the details of the structure and function of the pineal gland. This work is reviewed, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance to human physiology and disease. 
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References

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TLDR
The history of melatonin starts in 1917, with the discovery that mammalian pineal gland extracts have the ability to lighten amphibian skin, and was isolated and chemically identified as N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine by Lerner et al. Expand
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TLDR
The biologically active substances which have been identified within the pineal gland will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the synthesis of melatonin and the photoperiodic and hormonal modulation ofmelatonin synthesis. Expand
Spontaneous pineal body tumours (pinealomas) in Wistar rats; a histological and ultrastructural study
The pathology of 5 cases of pinealomas in Wistar rats used in long-term toxicological studies is described both grossly, microscopically and ultrastructurally, together with a review of the relatedExpand
Degeneration of the pineal gland of patients with cancer
TLDR
A review of the literature revealed no previous description of such changes in the pineal gland of cancer patients, and multiple slit‐like cystic cavities, gliosis, and large numbers of Rosenthal fibers were found in the enlarged pineal glands of 31 patients. Expand
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TLDR
This chapter focuses on pineal influence on tumor, which seems to possess a mediator role among hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal functions and may also have an influence on the physiological as well as malignant growth process. Expand
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TLDR
Evidence is presented that the neuroendocrine responsiveness to melatonin in a number of situations correlates with the number of membrane melatonin sites in rat and hamster brains. Expand
Disappearance of plasma melatonin after removal of a neoplastic pineal gland.
TLDR
The standard treatment for lesions of the pineal gland: radiotherapy without a tissue diagnosis is called into question, because current neurodiagnostic techniques can detect very small lesions but cannot identify the type of tumor cell. Expand
The relationship between the pineal gland and the pituitary-adrenal axis in health, endocrine and psychiatric conditions
TLDR
Subgroups of patients with Cushing's disease as well as with major depressive disorder have low levels of nocturnal serum melatonin, and these levels may be a genetic trait marker for vulnerability to depression. Expand
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The study of the pineal organ now excites various scientific communities, among them endocrinologists, neuropharmacologists, and neurochemists. The very high concentrations of biogenic amines in theExpand
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